“On the First Day of the Week” by Iain D. Campbell
The goal of Campbell’s book is to restore what was lost in terms of Sabbath observance among Christians, not only on the isle of Lewis (Scotland) where he pastors a church, but across the globe if possible. He aims to bolster the relationship of the Sabbath and Lord’s Day in hopes of reversing trends among Christians that evince a decreasing appreciation for the Lord’s Day. That is, there is something in the Sabbath command that will make our Lord’s Day more honoring to God and more profitable for us.
His writing style is friendly and instructional. It is as if you are sitting down with him and hearing his perspective on things sabbatical. This does not necessarily mean that he is logical, accurate or consistent within his writings, but he does represent well the Puritan form of Sunday Sabbatarianism that eventually gave rise to modern seventh-day Sabbatarianism.
Campbell does not present many examples of how the Lord’s Day has taken a down turn, but here are a few of them.
- “It is now possible to buy groceries and petrol on the Lord’s Day…” (10, 200)
- “…and to leave from and arrive at our island…each Sunday” (10, 200).
- “…many Christians see nothing wrong with working or taking part in other activities on the Lord’s Day” (11) such as sports, birthdays, or employment (199).
- A triple jumper competed on Sunday and only earned a bronze medal (182-3).
- Rare that “you could recognize the churchgoing public by their appearance” (194).
- “Church life erodes …and gives way to new, ‘seeker-friendly’ forms of evangelism…” (196).
- “…times and days of worship must bend to accommodate the needs of [seekers]” (196).
- Christians “easily opt out of church when (they) would not miss an important social function” or they fail to attend both morning and evening services (198).
He summarizes his observations by stating, “If my Sunday activities are secular ones, then they are by definition unnecessary, and they fail to honour Jesus Christ” (195). Unfortunately, none of the above observations is supported by a scriptural command that confirms the sinfulness of these activities. However, I would agree that the day of corporate worship—Sunday—is best left on the day that the Lord himself has chosen.
The Sabbath of Old Testament was defined by a number of laws, seven pairs in my analysis. They are: 1) it occurs on the 7th day of each week, beginning Friday evening and ending Saturday evening; 2) remain within your home throughout Israel, though a representative convocation occurs at the temple in Jerusalem; 3) do no work, but rest; 4) consider the creation and consider the redemption from Egypt; 5) do not kindle a fire and prepare beforehand what you should eat; 6) sacrifice two lambs and bake twelve loaves each Sabbath; 7) punish Sabbath-breakers and stone the obstinate. However, Campbell does not enumerate them, nor does he discuss how these laws should be applied under the New Testament, with the exception that Christians must not work, but rest, attending two church services on Sunday, dressing appropriately, and consecrating the whole day to the Lord (171). This is a rather selective use of the law that appears to support only his modified Puritan form of Sunday Sabbatarianism.
Also, when tackling the Sabbath/Lord’s Day controversy, one would expect some critical analysis of the opponent’s point of view, but there is very little offered here. On the theological front, he mentions Lincoln and Bauckham from Carson’s anthology From Sabbath to Lord’s Day (1982), and Boice, Bruce and Bunyan minimally. It does not appear that he uncovers any really insidious doctrines or errors since he believes these men are, for all practical purposes, calling the Lord’s Day a “Christian Sabbath” (146). This calls into question his main thesis. Does the view that the Sabbath is a fulfilled commandment and therefore not binding on Christians really impact the Christian’s attitude toward and behavior on the Lord’s Day? Or are there other “forces” at work? Sure, they go shopping on Sunday after church, but Campbell does not demonstrate a connection between this and say, a decreased zeal for serving the Lord or a dampened heart of gratefulness for one’s salvation.
The bottom line, as Campbell agrees, is which viewpoint is consistent with the teaching of scripture (12). If Campbell is right, then Christians are enjoying themselves much more than they should on Sunday. If Campbell is wrong, then he is advocating the yoke of legalism instead of liberty.
The storyline of his book is broken down into eight chapters to show that the whole Bible supports a sabbatical theme and that the Sabbath is relevant to every culture since creation.
|1||God and the Sabbath||7th day rest; creation ordinance, morality of 10C; covenant|
|2||Moses and the Sabbath||Redemption; holiness, work v. rest, extent of application; blessedness; sign; feasts|
|3||Prophets and the Sabbath||Isaiah; blessedness; new moon; Amos; buy & sell; Jeremiah; burden; Ezekiel; given; profaned; Nehemiah; gates|
|4||Jesus and the Sabbath||Nazareth; healing; Lord of the Sabbath; Sabbath made for man; death and resurrection|
|5||Apostles and the Sabbath||Law; continuity v. discontinuity; Lord’s Day; Christian Sabbath; Shadow; sabbatismos|
|6||Puritans and the Sabbath||Owen; Henry; Westminster Confession of Faith; Watson; Edwards; Sabbath-keeping; legalism|
|7||21st Century Christians||Lordship; keeping the Lord’s Day; holiness; works of necessity and mercy; principles|
|8||Heaven and the Sabbath||Redemption; holiness; worship; rest; resurrection; family|
He begins with “God and the Sabbath” to advance the theory that God practiced the Sabbath and therefore it is a moral precept. However, what should be a matter of interest is that Moses did not use the word “Sabbath” at all in the book of Genesis, but he did use the word “rest.” The Sabbath, on the other hand, is associated with the covenant with Israel. The progression of his chapters is appropriate because the theme of REST is presented at the beginning of creation and as the final place and state of the redeemed. The final chapter was certainly uplifting.
There are many aspects related to the question of applying Sabbath law to the Christian’s Lord’s Day. Campbell touches on most of them, but he doesn’t explore them in sufficient depth to make his case. Indeed, the most important aspect of this discussion is whether the Sabbath command was ceremonial or not, but he does not review what any Reformation fathers wrote on that topic prior to the WCF. He seems to acknowledge some differences between the Mosaic Sabbath and the “Christian Sabbath”—which would imply acknowledgement of some ceremoniality of the Sabbath commandment—but he just doesn’t clarify his position. For example, he mentions that Christ’s sacrifice annulled the blood-letting commandments, but he doesn’t explain why the “bread of the presence” is no longer prepared on our “Christian Sabbath.” To justify moving the Sabbath to the 1st day of the week, he falters on explaining why the 7th day of the week is ceremonial, but the frequency of every 7th day is not. He hesitates to define “work,” yet states that it is “cessation from that kind of activity involved in the labours of the other six days” and “[turning] aside from secular labour, from all unnecessary labour.” But then he disagrees with those whose definition of unnecessary labor includes shaving, brushing a jacket or polishing shoes (56-57). If the definition of labor is ultimately decided by the individual, then what does that say about the supposed intrinsic morality of Sabbath-keeping? If blessings are ours for keeping the Sabbath, how can we know what activities put those blessings at risk?
So what makes some Old Testament laws ceremonial? In the context in which these laws were given, they appeared to be rooted in Israel’s history, specifically her redemption, and they guided her approach to God. Retrospectively, they are laws given by God in which the primary intent was to foreshadow the person and work of Jesus Christ, and the beneficiaries and benefits of His great salvation. So they are symbolical, metaphorical, and prophetical in contradistinction to reflecting the nature of God’s attributes, such as truth, faithfulness, and love. If we adopt the New Testament theological perspective of Paul and the author of Hebrews, ceremonial laws were types, shadows, and examples (Col 2:16; Heb 8:5; 9:8; 10:1). They were weak and unprofitable (Heb 7:18-19), and temporary (Heb 9:10) because they could not deliver what they seemed to be designed to deliver. They were old (Heb 8:13) and served as patterns to herald something better, newer, and more real (Heb 8:5-6; 9:23-24; 10:1).
So how does the Sabbath measure up? Does it typify something greater? Does it symbolize something redemptive? Did obedience to the Sabbath command deliver what it promised? Does the New Testament define the Sabbath as a type or shadow? Does the theme of rest escalate into something better and more magnificent? Is it similar to other ceremonial commands? Let’s review how Campbell speaks of the Sabbath.
“The Sabbath commandment is directly related to the theme of redemption……” (54)
“… Israel is all of God’s people (a spiritual, not an ethnic, Israel), and the covenant is now the new covenant, which has no need of ritual and ceremony.” (59)
“Within the tabernacle there were many things that were reminiscent of Paradise and of Redemption… It is in this context that God appoints the Sabbaths has signs of the covenant… The symbolism of creation is evident, therefore, as much in the Sabbath principle as in the tabernacle construction and its account.” (62-63)
“[Quoting John Frame] ‘The Sabbath is God’s dwelling in time, the temple is his dwelling in space’.” (63)
“Leviticus 23…outlines the annual programme of religious festivals which God asks his people to observe. Interestingly, these begin with the Sabbath regulation… This is full of theological significance.” (64)
“[Quoting Andrew Bonar] ‘And it [the Sabbath] is to be kept when all the other feasts have finished – a type of the deep rest yet to come when earth’s sins are swept away…” (64)
“Running through the calendar are the sabbatical principles of holiness, rest, consecration and worship which have been part of the experience of man from the beginning, and of Israel since her redemption. In them all, God was teaching his people through symbols and types.” (66)
“For that reason, while the Sabbath ceremonials have passed away, the Sabbath principle itself remains valid and binding.” (66)
“Each Sabbath was a reminder of God’s intervention in history through grace, in order to deal with the problem of sin.” (69)
“[Reflecting on the stick–gatherer who was stoned to death outside the camp] Is it not that Christ has suffered for us ‘outside the camp’ (Hebrews 13:11)? … He has brought the gracious aspect of redemptive history to its fullest revelation, so that now we see clearly what could only be dimly grasped before.” (71)
“… for Jesus the meaning of the Sabbath, as well as the weight of Old Testament prophecy, was concentrated in a unique way on his Person and Work.” (107)
“…the seventh day Sabbath gives way to the first day Sabbath, transferring the day signifying spiritual rest…” (129)
“The fact that Christ poured out his Holy Spirit on the first day of the week verified the typology, and showed that what the Old Testament had longed for was now here… There was to be no more Pentecost, just as there was to be no more Passover.” (130)
“The reality was that Pentecost always demonstrated that the first day of the week was to be significant, and that the old Sabbath was ready to give way to something better.” (130)
“There are many things in the Old Testament, such as sacrificial system and other elements of typology, which in themselves were unable to secure full pardon for the sinner. They anticipated the coming of Jesus Christ, whose work at Calvary rendered every other sacrifice and every other basis of our acceptance as obsolete and defunct.” (139)
“Outward symbols of covenant membership, like circumcision, count for nothing, now that Christ has offered himself up for us.” (141)
“… it is clear that Paul is referring to the old, Jewish, seventh day of the week Sabbath. That was, indeed, part of the shadow which anticipated the coming of a new revelation.” (148)
“It is not difficult to see how the early church, with the major transition from Judaism to Christianity which was going on across the Testaments, found it easy to fall into the error of thinking that rites and rituals from the older covenant should be carried over into the new.” (149)
“… the writer then links the ‘rest’ of the land of Canaan with God’s rest at creation (Hebrews4:4). The thought is that as God entered into ‘rest’ on the seventh creation day, so he provided a ‘rest’ which his people could enjoy in their inheritance of the promised land. Yet, as verse 8 demonstrates, Canaan could never have been the total fulfillment of the promise that God would give his people ‘rest.’ Ultimately, that rest is ours in the glory of heaven, the full and consummate enjoyment of the communion we have with God through the mediatorial work of Jesus Christ.” (152)
It should be obvious that Campbell cannot avoid describing the Sabbath in ceremonial or typological terms. If it looks, smells, and tastes like a ceremonial commandment, then it is quite likely a ceremonial commandment.
Pastor Campbell’s heart is in the right place. There is nothing wrong with encouraging believers to assemble together on the Lord’s Day each week. Like Campbell, I wish that all people who profess to be Christians would actually attend church regularly and contribute to the health of the body by practicing the “one anothers”. The author of Hebrews saw Jewish believers withdraw from the life of the church and so he admonished his readers “to consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works, not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together… (Heb10:24-25).” This is just common sense. The best antidote for worldliness and deception, despair and fear should be keeping company with fellow believers. But the author of Hebrews did not appeal to the Sabbath commandment because it was already causing nostalgic Hebrew Christians to separate from Lord’s Day worship. It is improper, in my mind, to appeal to the bygone Sabbath to promote the Lord’s Day. There is already enough theology in the Lord’s Day to promote itself.
If you are interested in reading a contemporary explanation of the Puritan’s view of a Sabbath-flavored Lord’s Day, then this is a good book to read. But read it critically.
“Christ and the Desert Tabernacle” by J. V. Fesko
Fesko is a Dean and Professor at Westminster Seminary, California, with a penchant for clearly communicating biblical concepts and tenderly encouraging godly behavior. The theme of the book is to review various emblems and types associated with the tabernacle as presented primarily in Exodus 25-30, explore the correspondence and fulfillment of them in Christ, and to promote godly Christian thought and behavior in view of them. Since the tabernacle and its services were patterned after heavenly affairs, yet also prefiguring Christ’s work of redemption and the services of church, it was fitting to review these details while reflecting on the history of his own pastorate in Georgia. Thus, the fullness of scripture is allowed to shape and guide our understanding of and involvement in the work of Christ’s church.
|Building materials||Ex 25:1-9 (35:4-9)||Building the church through giving; the right use of wealth; maintaining vision for evangelism; & employing the Word, sacraments and prayer|
|The Ark of the Covenant||Ex 25:10-22 (37:1-9)||Realize the presence of God in our gathering, our forgiveness in Christ, and pray in the Holy Spirit|
|The table and bread of presence||Ex 25:23-30 (37:10-16)||Be thankful and content for the Lord’s care of us; remember Him in the Lord’s Supper; honor Him|
|The lampstand and oil||Ex 25:31-40 (37:17-24), and 27:20-21||Shine the light of the gospel and good works to the world; maintain hope for the consummation|
|The tabernacle||Ex 26:1-37 (36:8-38)||Meditate on the abiding presence of God in us; be comforted and encouraged in life and hope for His kingdom arrival|
|The altar and courtyard||Ex 27:1-19 (38:1-7, 9-20)||Exult in the work of Christ that satisfied God’s wrath against sin; maintain a proper understanding of sin and forgiveness|
|The priest’s garments||Ex 28:1-43 (39:1-31)||View Christ as our high priest; sin is not only forgiven, but righteousness imputed; do not fear|
|The consecration of priests||Ex 29:1-46||Realize the shame of sin is removed in Christ; He sustains us with His life; gather together and edify each other|
|The altar of incense||Ex 30:1-10 (37:25-28)||Understand that Christ now intercedes for us to be godly in our life; make our life one of prayer in thanks, praise, and intercession|
|The census tax||Ex 30:11-16||Practice humility since our strength come from the Lord; be gracious in attitude toward the unredeemed; yield our bodies for righteous ends|
|The bronze basin||Ex 30:17-21 (38:8)||Realize the activity of the Holy Spirit in your life and “improve on your baptism”|
|Oholiab and Bezalel||Ex 31:1-11||Use your spiritual gifts for the growth of the church and for the building up of other believers; Be motivated by love in your service|
|The Sabbath||Ex 31:12-18||Recall the work of Christ and the rest He provides; observe the Lord’s Day with joy and excitement; live a sanctified life as a result|
I am personally drawn to typology and do not tire of considering how the Lord thinks and acts. It was necessary in God’s mind and will to engage the Israelites in a system of worship that somehow mimicked a pattern in heaven, recalled the initial creation, and anticipated a grand fulfillment in the person and work of Christ. And there was and is nothing in the flow of history or in the freedom of man to impede the outworking of God’s will from the beginning until the eschaton. The power and glory of God is evident in types and shadows.
How should Christians approach this aspect of biblical history? One approach is to imagine yourself living during that age. Just as the future generations of Israelites were to consider themselves to have been slaves in Egypt, Christians might consider themselves to have been faithful Israelites serving in the temple arena, and now, in view of the fulfillment of these shadows, “Rejoice that we no longer need to fear the presence of the Lord” (p. 75). It is easy to take for granted the freedom and simplicity of our access to the throne of God and to underestimate the privilege of serving within the body of Christ. May our fervency in service and our resolve to live in God’s presence be increased and intensified.
While some of the rites and ceremonies review the same portrayal of Christ’s work on the cross, this underscores the glorious importance of His work in the eyes of His Father. Yet a closer look does demonstrate nuances to that work of redemption that are wonderful to consider. It is the multitude of ritualistic details that work together to provide a unified and symphonic voice in proclaiming the majesty of our Lord and God.
Fesko opens with a brilliant examination of the materials involved in the construction of the tabernacle: their source, their specificity, and their use. He also lays the groundwork for understanding the christocentricity of types and shadows, a point that he appropriately repeats throughout the book. While many of the shadows specifically point toward Christ and His work, several of them allude to the church in general, which is Christ’s body, such as the lampstands and the consecration of priests. The altar of incense can view both the intercession of Christ on our behalf and/or the prayers of saints—a very enriching chapter, indeed.
Types are not limited to things and laws, but also to persons and activities. So, it was especially interesting to read Fesko’s ideas regarding the census tax, Oholiab and Bezalel, and the Sabbath. Unfortunately, he forgot to mention that the census tax (also called the redemption or temple tax) was referred to in the NT when Peter was questioned whether or not Jesus paid tribute (Matt 17:24-27). As Jesus delved into the significance of this law, He opened up considerations that are not superficially apparent in a reading of Exodus 30:11-16, such as the humanity and divinity of Christ. Fesko’s understanding of the giftedness of the artisans was quite encouraging, however, the focus on the church overshadowed any consideration of its fulfillment in Christ. After all, Isaiah exclaimed that the Lord put His Spirit upon the messianic servant (Isa 42:1).
Fesko’s treatment of the Sabbath is traditionally Reformed, and as such full of inconsistency. He is eloquent in stating the rationale for the commandment that Israel abstains from labor on the Sabbath: “The Israelites were not supposed to work because they were not able to enter God’s eternal rest by their own labour, but only by the labour of another” (p. 128). Obviously, since the prohibition from labor typified the spiritual inadequacy of man effecting his own redemption (and the supremacy of Christ’s work), then it would be silly for NT believers to actually refrain from work on a weekly basis as a spiritually significant activity. But Fesko assures his readers that even though they no longer observe the Sabbath, they still may observe a day of rest on the first day of the week. That is like saying that we no longer observe the Day of Atonement, but we still afflict our souls on the eleventh day of the seventh month. If it is true that there is no more offering for sin because Christ has offered one sacrifice for sins forever (Heb 10:12-18), then it is also true that there is no need for ritualistic rest because Christ has provided rest for our souls forever (Col 2:16; Matt 11:28-30).
The obvious shortcoming of this book is its brevity; however its brevity is also a strength. I imagine Fesko would have wanted to expound more on each of the subjects, assuming that his pastoral heart cannot be silenced. Yet in the brief contours of this book, he manages to provide plenty of encouragement, edification, and enthralling lessons.