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Evaluating the Strength of Arguments in the Sabbath/Lord’s Day Controversy, Part 2c: What are the Texts?

With an awareness of the three major positions of the debate and a general survey of the most significant verses on the topic with a host a questions to answer, it is time to expand our study to the numerous Bible verses that apply to the subject. Following are all verses that mention rest, Sabbath, related feasts and festivals. Other verses may apply in a tangential way, but the following verses are strictly about or related to the Sabbath and Lord’s Day. The final section on typology is a basic presentation of the pervasive theme of rest as it relates to the provider of rest, the state of rest, and the place of rest.

Sabbath Scriptures Outlined

  1. WORDS
    1. Shabbath [O.T. 7676] 111 occurrences
      1. 110 ‘sabbath’ or ‘sabbaths’ Ex. 16:23, 25, 26, 29; 20:8, 10, 11; 31:13, 14, 15(2), 16(2); 35:2, 3; Lev. 16:31; 19:3, 30; 23:3(2), 11, 15(2), 16, 32(2), 38; 24:8(2); 25:2, 4(2), 6, 8(2); 26:2, 26:34(2), 35, 43; Num. 15:32; 28:9, 10(2); Deut. 5:12, 14, 15; 2 Ki. 4:23; 11:5, 7, 9(2); 16:18; 1 Ch. 9:32(2); 23:31; 2 Ch. 2:4; 8:13; 23:4, 23:8(2); 31:3; 36:21; Neh. 9:14; 10:31(2), 33; 13:15(2), 16, 17, 18, 19(3), 21, 22; Ps. 92:1; Isa. 1:13; 56:2, 4, 6; 58:13(2); 66:23(2); Jer. 17:21, 22(2), 24(2), 27(2); Lam. 2:6; Ezek. 20:12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24; 22:8, 26; 23:38; 44:24; 45:17; 46:1, 3, 4, 12; Hos. 2:11; Amos 8:5
      2. 1 ‘another’ in Isa. 66:23 “one sabbath to another”
    2. Shabbathon [O.T. 7677] 11 occurrences
      1. 8 ‘rest’ Ex. 16:23; 31:15; 35:2; Lev. 16:31; 23:3, 32; 25:4, 5
      2. 3 ‘sabbath’ Lev. 23:24, 39 (2)
    3. Mishbattim. [O.T. 4868] 1 occurrence
      1. 1 ‘sabbaths’ or ‘downfall’ or ‘cessation’ Lam. 1:7
    4. Shabath [O.T. 7673] 71 occurrences
      1. Gen. 2:2, 2:3; 8:22; Ex. 5:5; 12:15; 16:30; 23:12; 31:17; 34:21(2); Lev. 2:13, 23:32; 25:2; 26:6, 34, 35(2); Deut. 32:26; Josh. 5:12; 22:25; Ruth 4:14; 2 Ki. 23:5, 11; 2 Ch.16:5; 36:21; Neh. 4:11; 6:3; Job. 32:1; Ps. 8:2; 46:9; 89:44; 119:119; Prov. 18:18; 22:10; Isa. 13:11; 14:4(2); 16:10; 17:3; 21:2; 24:8(2); 30:11; 33:8; Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 31:36; 36:29; 48:33, 35; Lam. 5:14, 15; Ezek. 6:6; 7:24; 12:23; 16:41; 23:27, 48; 26:13; 30:10, 13, 18; 33:28; 34:10, 25; Dan. 9:27; 11:18; Hos. 1:4; 2:11; 7:4; Amos 8:4
        1. 18 ‘to cause to cease’ – Neh. 4:11; Prov. 18:18; Isa. 13:11; 30:11; Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 36:29; 48:35; Ezek. 16:41; 23:48; 26:13; 30:13, 34:10, 25; Dan. 9:27; 11:18; Hos. 1:4; 2:11
        2. 14 ‘cease’ – Gen. 8:22; Josh. 5:12; Neh. 6:3; Job. 32:1; Prov. 22:10; Isa. 14:4(2); 24:8(2); 33:8; Jer. 31:36; Lam. 5:14, 15; Hos. 7:4
        3. 10 ‘make to cease’ – Deut. 32:26; Josh. 22:25; Ps. 46:9; 89:44; Isa. 16:10; 21:2; Ezek. 7:24; 12:23; 23:27, 30:10
        4. 10 ‘rest’ or ‘rested’ – Gen. 2:2, 3; Ex. 16:30, 23:12, 31:17, 34:21(2); Lev. 26:34, 35(2)
        5. 4 ‘cease’ – Isa. 17:3; Ezek. 6:6; 30:18; 33:28
        6. 1 land ‘keep sabbath’ – Lev. 25:2
        7. 1 ‘celebrate’ your sabbath – Lev. 23:32
        8. 13 various renderings –
          Ex. 5:5; 12:15; Lev. 2:13, 26:6, Ruth 4:14; 2 Ki. 23:5, 11; 2 Ch.16:5; 36:21; Ps. 8:2; 119:119; Jer. 48:33; Amos 8:4
    5. Shabua [O.T. 7620] 20 occurrences
      1. 19 ‘week’ or ‘weeks’ – Gen. 29:27, 28; Ex. 34:22; Lev. 12:5; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:9(2), 10, 16; 2 Chr. 8:13; Jer. 5:24; Dan. 9:24, 25(2), 26, 27(2); 10:2, 3
      2. 1 ‘seven’ Ezek. 45:21
    6. Sheba or Shibah [O.T. 7651] 394 occurrences – ‘seven,’ ‘sevenfold,’ ‘seven times,’ or ‘seventh’
      1. ‘Seven days’ 83 occurrences, e.g. Gen. 7:4, 10; 8:10; 31:23; 50:10; Ex. 7:25; 12:15, 19; 13:6, 7
      2. ‘Seven months’ 3 occurrences, 1 Sam. 6:1; Ezek. 39:12, 14
      3. ‘Seven years’ 37 occurrences, e.g. Lev. 25:8; Deut. 15:1; 31:10; 1 Ki. 16:38 (years building the Solomonic Temple); Jer. 34:14
      4. ‘sevenfold’ 5 occurrences, Gen. 4:15, 24; Ps. 79:12; Prov. 6:31; Isa 30:26
    7. Shebii [O.T. 7637] 97 occurrences
      1. ‘Seventh day’ 50 occurrences
        1. Creation – Gen 2:2(2), 3; Ex. 20:11; 31:17
        2. Sabbath – Ex. 12:15, 16; 16:26,27, 29, 30; 20:10; 23:12; 34:21; 35:2; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:14
        3. Clean – Lev. 13:5, 6, 27, 32, 34, 51; 14:9, 39; Num. 6:9; 19:12(2), 19(2); 31:19, 24
        4. Feasts – Ex. 13:6; Lev. 23:8; Num. 28:25; 29:32; Deut. 16:8; Ezek. 45:20
        5. Other – Ex. 24:16; Num. 7:48; Josh. 6:4, 15; Judg. 14:15, 17, 18; 2 Sam. 12:18; 1 Ki. 20:29; 2 Ki. 25:8; Esth. 1:10; Ezek. 30:20
      2. ‘Seventh month’ 26 occurrences, e.g. Gen. 8:4; Lev. 16:29; 23:24, 27, 34, 39, 41; 25:9; Num. 29:1, 7, 12; 1 Ki. 8:2; 2 Chr. 5:3; Ezra 3:1,6; Neh. 7:73; 8:2, 14; Ezek. 45:25
      3. ‘Seventh year’ 14 occurrences, e.g. Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:4, 20; Deut. 15:9, 12
    8. Chodesh [O.T. 2320] 283 occurrences
      1. 258 ‘month(s)’ – e.g. Gen. 7:11; 8:4, 5, 13, 14; Ex. 2:12; 40:17; Lev. 23:5, 6, 24,27, 32, 34, 39, 41;
      2. 22 ‘new moon(s)’ – Num. 29:6; 1 Chr. 23:31; 2 Chr. 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; 1 Sam. 20:5, 18, 24; 2 Ki. 4:23; Ezra 3:5; Neh. 10:33; Ps 81:3; Isa. 1:13, 14; 66:23; Ezek. 45:17; 46:1, 3, 6; Hos 2:11; 5:7; Amos 8:5
    9. Manoach [O.T. 4494] 6 occurrences.
      1. rest – Gen. 8:9; Deut. 28:65; Ruth 3:1; Ps. 116:7; Lam. 1:30; Isa. 34:14
    10. Menuchah [O.T. 4496] 22 occurrences.
      1. place of rest – Gen. 49:15; Num. 10:33; Deut. 12:9; Ruth 1:9; 1 Ki. 8:56; 1 Ch. 22:9; 28:2; Ps. 95:11; 116:7;
        132:8, 14; Isa. 11:10; 28:12; 32:18; 66:1; Jer. 45:3; Mic. 2:10; Zech. 9:1
      2. Other – Jdg. 20:43; 2 Sa. 14:17; Ps. 23:2; Jer. 51:59
    11. Margoa [O.T. 4771] “rest for you soul” Jer. 6:16
    12. Nuach [O.T. 5117] 67 occurrences. ‘to be at rest,’ ‘rested’
      1. 26 – ‘rest,’ ‘rested’ Gen. 8:4; Ex. 10:14: 20:11; 23:12; Num. 10:36; 11:25, 26; Deut. 5:14; Josh. 3:13; 2 Sa. 21:10; 2 Ki. 2:15; Esth. 9:17, 18, 22; Job 3:13, 17; Ps. 125:3; Prov. 14:33; Eccl. 7:9; Isa. 7:19; 11:2; 14:7; 23:12; 25:10; 57:2; Lam. 5:5; Dan. 12:13; Hab. 3:16
      2. 29 – ‘give rest,’ ’cause to rest’ Ex. 33:14; Deut. 3:20; 12:10; 25:19; Josh. 1:13, 15; 21:44; 22:4; 23:1; 2 Sam. 7:1, 11; 1 Ki. 5:4; 1 Chr. 22:9, 18; 23:25; 2 Chr. 14:6, 7; 15:15; 20:30; Neh. 9:28; Prov. 29:17; Isa. 14:3; 28:12; 63:14; Ezek. 5:13; 16:42; 21:17; 24:13; 44:30
      3. 13 – Other Ex. 17:11; 1 Sam. 25:9; 2 Sam. 17:12; Job 3:26; Prov. 21:16; Isa. 7:2, 30:32; Ezek. 37:1; 40:2 Zech. 6:8
    13. Nuach [O.T. 5118] 2 occurences. ‘resting place’, ‘had rest’
      1. 2 Chr 6:41; Esth 9:16
    14. Anapauo [N.T. 373] ‘rest’
      1. 4 – ‘refresh’ 1 Cor. 16:18; 2 Cor. 7:13; Philem. 7, 20
      2. 8 – ‘rest’ Matt. 11:28 (“I will give you rest”); 26:45; Mk. 6:31; 14:41; Lk. 12:19; 1 Pet. 4:14; Rev. 6:11; 14:13
    15. Anapausis [N.T. 372] 5 occurrences. an intermission or state of rest; used in the Septuagint to translate Heb. Shabbath ‘cessation, refreshment, rest’
      1. 5 – ‘rest’ Matt 11:29 (“rest for your souls”); 12:43; Lk. 11:24; Rev. 4:8; 14:11
    16. Katapauo [N.T. 2664] 4 occurrences. ‘to cease’
      1. 3 – ‘rest’ Heb. 4:4, 8, 10
      2. 1 – ‘restrain’ Acts 14:18
    17. Katapausis [N.T. 2663], ‘rest’
      1. 9 – ‘rest’ – Acts 7:49; Heb. 3:11, 18; 4:1, 3(2), 5, 10, 11
    18. Sabbata [N.T. 4521] 68 occurrences. Neuter plural noun, transliterated from singular Aramaic; and Sabbaton, singular noun, formed from the mistaken plural
      1. Matt. 12:1, 2, 5(2), 8, 10, 11, 12; 24:20; 28:1(2); Mark 1:21; 2:23, 24, 27(2), 28; 3:2, 4; 6:2; 16:1, 2, 9; Luke 4:16, 31; 6:1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9; 13:10, 14(2), 15, 16; 14:1, 3, 5; 18:12; 23:54, 56; 24:1; John 5:9, 10, 16, 18; 7:22, 23(2); 9:14, 16; 19:31(2); 20:1, 19; Acts 1:12; 13:14, 27, 42, 44; 15:21; 16:13; 17:2; 18:4; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Col. 2:16
        1. Sabbaton: 41 occurrences – 39 as ‘Sabbath’ and 2 as ‘week’
        2. Sabbata: 27 occurrences – 20 as ‘Sabbath’ and 7 as ‘week’
      2. 51 ‘Sabbath’
        1. Sabbaton: Matt. 12:2, 5, 8; 24:20; Mk. 2:27(2), 28; 6:2; 16:1; Lk. 6:1, 5, 6, 7; 13:14, 15, 16; 14:1, 3; 23:54, 56; Jn. 5:9, 10, 16, 18; 7:22, 23(2), 9:14, 16; 19:31(2); Acts 1:12; 13:27, 42, 44; 15:21; 18:4
        2. Sabbata: Matt. 12:1, 5, 10, 11, 12; 28:1; Mk.1:21, 23, 24; 3:2, 4; Lk. 6:2, 9; 13:10
      3. 5 ‘Sabbath day’
        1. Sabbaton: Luke 13:14; 14:5
        2. Sabbata: Luke 4:16; Acts 13:14; 16:13
      4. 3 ‘Sabbaths’
        1. Sabbaton: none
        2. Sabbata: Lk. 4:31; Acts 17:2; Col. 2:16
      5. 9 ‘week’
        1. Sabbaton: Mk. 16:9; Lk. 18:12
        2. Sabbata: Matt. 28:1; Mk. 16:2; Lk. 24:1; Jn. 20:1, 19; Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:2
    19. Sabbatismos [N.T. 4520] ‘rest’ or ‘sabbath-keeping’ – Heb. 4:9
    20. Prosabbaton [N.T. 4315] ‘day before the Sabbath’ Mk. 15:42
    21. Neomenia [N.T. 3561] ‘New Moon’ Col. 2:16
  2. WORD ASSOCIATIONS
    1. Seventh Day – Ex. 16:26; (Gen. 2:2; Heb. 4:4)
    2. Given – Ex. 16:29; Ezek. 20:12 “the Lord has given you the Sabbath”
    3. Hallowed – Ex. 20:11
    4. Holy – Ex. 31:15; Neh. 9:14
    5. A Holy Day – Ex. 35:2
    6. Holy Convocation – Lev. 23:3, 38
    7. Rest of the Holy Sabbath unto the Lord – Ex. 16:23
    8. Blessed and Hallowed – Ex. 20:11
    9. A Sabbath of Rest – Ex. 30:10; 31:15; 35:2; Lev. 23:3, 32; 25:4; cf. Lev. 16:31 (atonement Sabbath)
    10. A Sabbath of Rest to the Lord – Ex. 35:2
    11. Sabbath of Rest unto you – Lev. 16:31
    12. Sabbath unto the Lord – Ex. 16:25
    13. Sabbath of the Lord thy God – Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14
    14. My Sabbaths – Ex. 31:13; Lev. 19:3, 30; 26:2; Ezek. 20:12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24; 22:8, 26; 23:38; 44:24; Isa. 56:4
    15. Sabbath of the Lord – Lev. 23:3, 38
    16. My Holy Day, the Holy of the Lord – Isa. 58:13
    17. A Delight, Honorable – Isa. 58:13
    18. Day of Atonement so regarded – Lev. 23:27-32 (tenth day of seventh month)
      1. cf. Jn. 19:31 “for that Sabbath day was a high day”
      2. cf. Lev. 23:14 (First Fruits)
      3. cf. Lev. 23:21 (Pentecost)
      4. cf. Lev. 23:31 (Day of Atonement); Lev. 16:29-31
      5. cf. Lev. 23:31 (Tabernacles)
    19. Statute forever – Lev. 16:29-31 (atonement Sabbath)
    20. Her (Israel’s) Sabbaths – Lam. 1:7
  3. SABBATH RELATIVES
    1. Feasts of the Lord – Lev. 23:1-3ff [Sabbath, Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Weeks (Pentecost), Trumpets, Day of Atonement, Tabernacles] 2 Chr. 8:12-13 – Solomon observed all the feasts
    2. Sabbath for the Land – Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-7, 18-22; 26:28-35, 43; 2 Chr. 36:16-21; Ex. 23:9-11; Neh. 10:31; Lev. 25:2; Jer. 34:8-17 (c.f. Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:9
      1. Hag. 2:15-19 – “the land shall keep a Sabbath unto the Lord;”
      2. Lev. 25:2-7; 18-22 “a Sabbath of rest unto the land, a Sabbath for the Lord”
      3. Deut. 15:9; 31:10-13 “year of release”
      4. Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:12; Jer. 34:14 – bond-servants set free
      5. Deut. 15:1-6, 12-18; 19-20; Neh. 10:31 – creditors release debtors
      6. Lev. 26:34, 35 (32-41); Jer. 34:12-22 – punishment
      7. Possibly observed: 2 Ki. 18:32; 19:29; Jer. 34:8-17; Hag. 2:15-19
    3. Jubilee “seven sabbaths of years” – Num. 36:4; Lev. 25:8-55; 27:17-24; Jer. 32:6-15 “right of redemption” Isa. 61:1-3
    4. Sabbath and the New Moon – 2 Ki. 4:23; Isa. 66:23; Ezek. 46:1; Hos. 2:11; Amos 8:5
    5. Feast, New Moon and Sabbath – Ezek. 45:17; I Chr. 23:31; 2 Chr. 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; Neh. 10:33
    6. Sabbatic Year and Jubilee – Isa. 37:30; 2 Ki. 19:29
  4. SABBATH ORIGINS
    1. First mention in wilderness – Ex. 16:5,25,26,27; cf. Ex. 16:28 “refusing to keep the commandments and laws”
    2. When given the law at Sinai – Ex. 20:8-10; Deut. 5:12-15; Neh. 9:13-14
    3. Creation association – Ex. 20:11; 31:17 (Gen. 2:2-3; Heb. 4:3-4)
    4. Release from captivity – Deut. 5:15
  5. SABBATH PURPOSE
    1. Refreshment – Ex. 23:12; 31:15; 34:21; Lev. 16:31
    2. Sign for Israel/To know the Lord – Ex. 31:13; 31:17; Ezek. 20:12; 20:20
    3. A holy day – Ex. 35:2
    4. Basis for other feasts – Ex. 34:21-22; Lev. 23:2-3, 11, 15-16, 24, 32, 39
    5. To offer sacrifices – Lev. 23:37-38; Num. 28:9-10; cf. Heb. 9:9-10 “gifts and sacrifices” “food and drinks” “various washings” “carnal ordinances”
    6. To recall the Egyptian captivity – Deut. 5:15; Lev. 26:2, 13
    7. As a gift from God – Ex. 16:29 “the Lord has given you the Sabbath”
    8. As a gift to God – Lev. 23:37-38
    9. As a perpetual covenant – Ex. 31:16; Lev. 24:1-8 (showbread)
    10. As a statute forever – Lev. 16:29-31 (atonement Sabbath); Isa. 66:23 “worship from one Sabbath to another” through eternity
    11. Prophetic worship – Ezek. 45:17; 46:1, 4, 12
    12. To do good (as well as on any other day) – Matt. 12:12; Isa. 1:(13),17
    13. To read and study the Scriptures – Mk. 1:21; 6:2; Lk. 4:16; 4:31; 6:6; 13:10; Acts 13:14, 27, 42, 44; 17:2; 18:4
    14. Prayer – Acts 16:13
    15. Shadow of the believer’s salvation rest – Heb. 4:4
  6. SABBATH RULES
    1. Starts the night before –
      1. Lev. 23:32 (atonement Sabbath) ” from evening unto evening, shall you celebrate your Sabbath”
      2. Neh. 13:19 “began to be dark before the Sabbath” (and needed to shut the gates)
      3. Mk. 15:42 “the evening was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the Sabbath (prosabbaton)”
      4. Lk. 23:54 “that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on” cf. Matt. 28:1 “in the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn”
    2. Cook the day before –
      1. Ex. 16:29 “cook what you need the day before”
      2. Ex. 35:3 “kindle no fire”
      3. cf. Ex. 12:16 “no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you.” (Passover Sabbaths)
      4. cf. Jer. 17:27 “I will kindle a fire in its gates” for Sabbath breaking
      5. cf. Ezek. 23:37-38 children passed through the fire on the Sabbath
      6. cf. Matt. 27:62 “the next day, that followed the day of the preparation”
      7. cf. Mk. 15:42 “when the evening was come… the day before the Sabbath”
      8. Lk. 23:54 post-crucifixion “day of preparation… Sabbath drew on”
      9. Jn. 19:31 “because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon     the cross on the Sabbath day”
    3. Abide at home –
      1. Ex. 16:29 “abide ye every man in his place”
      2. Lev. 23:31 (atonement Sabbath) observed “forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings”
      3. Lev. 23:3 “Sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings”
      4. 2 Ki. 4:22-23 Shunamite woman usually visited Elisha on a Sabbath or new moon
      5. Jer. 17:22 “Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day”
      6. Matt. 24:20 “pray that your flight be not… on the Sabbath days”
      7. Lk. 23:55-56 “and they returned (to the sepulchers)…and rested the Sabbath day”
      8. Acts 1:12 “Sabbath day’s journey” (2,000 paces)
      9. cf. Acts 16:13 “on the Sabbath we went out the city (Philippi) by a river”
    4. Rest prescribed –
      1. Ex. 23:12 six day to work, “the seventh is a day of rest”
      2. Ex. 31:15 six days to work, “the seventh is the Sabbath of rest”
      3. Ex. 34:21 six days to work, “the seventh is for rest during earing time and harvest”
      4. Ex. 35:2 six days to work, “the seventh is for rest…”
      5. cf. Lev. 23:32 “shall be to you a Sabbath of rest” (Atonement Sabbath)
      6. Lk. 23:56 “and rested the Sabbath day, according to the commandment”
    5. Remember, Keep, Observe or Hallow –
      1. Ex. 16:28 “How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?”
      2. Ex. 20:8 “remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy”
      3. Ex. 31:13 “Verily, my Sabbaths ye shall keep; for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations…”
      4. Ex. 31:16    “the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath…”
      5. Ex. 31:16    “…to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations for a perpetual covenant”
      6. Lev. 19:3    “fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my Sabbaths”
      7. Lev. 19:30    “Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary”
      8. cf. Lev. 23:32    “celebrate your Sabbath” (Atonement Sabbath)
      9. Lev. 26:2    “Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary”
      10. Deut. 5:12    “Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God”
      11. Deut. 5:15    “the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath day”
      12. Neh. 13:22    “come and keep the gates, to sanctify the Sabbath day”
      13. cf. Neh. 13:17    “profane the Sabbath”
      14. cf. Isa. 1:13    “Sabbaths of backsliding Israel an abomination to the Lord”
      15. Isa. 56:2    “keep my Sabbaths”
      16. Isa. 56:4    “keep my Sabbaths”
      17. Isa. 56:6    “keep my Sabbaths”
      18. Isa. 58:13    “call it a delight and honor the Lord”
      19. Jer. 17:22, 24    “but hallow the Sabbath day”
      20. cf. Ezek. 20:13; 22:8; 23:38 Israel profaned or polluted “my Sabbaths”
      21. Ezek. 20:20    “hallow my Sabbaths”
      22. Ezek. 44:24    future priests to “hallow my Sabbaths”
      23. Acts 15:21    “Moses is read in the synagogues”
    6. Work proscribed –
      1. Ex. 16:27 Israelites wrongly gathered manna
      2. Ex. 20:10 children, servants, livestock “shall not do any work”
      3. Ex. 23:12 the ox, ass, son of servant or stranger “shall rest”
      4. Ex. 31:14 “the soul who works shall be cut off”
      5. Ex. 31:15 inferred proscription from work
      6. Ex. 35:3 “kindle no fire”
      7. Lev. 16:29 “and do no work at all” (Atonement Sabbath)
      8. Lev. 23:3 “you shall do no work therein”
      9. cf. Lev. 23:24 “you shall do no servile work” (Trumpets Sabbath)
      10. cf. Lev. 23:31 “you shall do no manner of work” (atonement Sabbath)
      11. Num. 15:32 man wrongly gathered sticks
      12. Neh. 13:15 loading animals, bringing in heaps of grain, wine treading, sold provisions
      13. Neh. 13:16 men of Tyre enticed Jews to participate in commerce
      14. Neh. 13:22 “carried burdens”
      15. cf. Neh. 13:19 Nehemiah ordered his servants to guard the gates on the Sabbath to prevent the entrance of merchants into Jerusalem
      16. Isa. 58:13 prohibits “doing your own pleasure” “turning away foot” “speaking your own words” “doing you own ways”
      17. Jer. 17:21 “bear no burden… nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem”
      18. Jer. 17:22 don’t “carry… a burden out of your houses… neither do any work”
      19. Jn. 10:10 “it is not lawful for you to carry thy bed” (though told by Jesus to do so)
      20. cf. Mk. 16:1 “when the Sabbath was past” (Mary/Mary/Salome) went to anoint the body of Jesus
    7. Conduct no business
      1. Neh. 10:31 after restoration of Sabbath, Jews were encouraged not to buy items brought by non-Jews to the city for sale
      2. Neh. 13:15-22 Israelites worked on the Sabbath
      3. Neh. 13:16 brought wares and sold on the Sabbath
      4. Neh. 13:17 “What evil thing is this that you do, and profane the Sabbath day?”
      5. Neh. 13:19 Ordered gate shut to restrict trade
      6. Jer. 17:21, 24, 27 “bear no burden… nor bring it in by the gates”
      7. Jer. 17:22 “Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day”
      8. Amos 8:5 God exposes the impatience of Israel to bypass the Sabbath so they may sell to earn money through deceit
    8. Priestly duties –
      1. Lev. 24:1-8 priest prepares lampstands and arranges showbread “every Sabbath continually” “taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant”
      2. cf. Ex. 25:23-30 Directions for showbread table
      3. Num. 28:9-10 two lambs sacrificed every Sabbath
      4. I Chr. 9:32 sons of the Kohathites were over the showbread, to prepare it every Sabbath
      5. 1 Sam 21:6 David and showbread
      6. Neh. 13:22 priests told to cleanse themselves by Nehemiah and to guard the gates
      7. cf. Ezek. 46:1 east gate to be opened on the Sabbath in the future (also on a New Moon)
      8. Jn. 7:22-24 “on the Sabbath day you circumcise a man”
    9. Death Penalty and Judgments –
      1. Ex. 16:27-28 “How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?” (for gathering manna on the Sabbath)
      2. Ex. 31:14 “anyone who defiles it shall surely be put to death”
      3. Ex. 31:14 “the soul who works shall be cut off”
      4. Ex. 35:2 “whosoever works shall be put to death”
      5. Lev. 26:33-35 Dispersion for disobedience of the law resulting in the land enjoying its forgotten sabbatic years
      6. cf. Num. 9:13 death penalty for not observing the Passover
      7. Num. 15:32-36 incident of man who gathered sticks and was put to death    “did not know what to do”
      8. Neh. 13:15 “I testified against them in the day in which they sold provisions”
      9. Neh. 13:17 “I contended with the nobles… ‘what evil thing is this that you do and profane the Sabbath'”
      10. Neh. 13:18 Nehemiah expected greater judgment on Israel for profaning the Sabbath
      11. Neh. 13:21 “Then I testified against them”
      12. Isa. 1:13-14 God despises the festival worship of Israel “weary of bearing them”
      13. Jer. 17:27 “then will I kindle a fire in its gates” for Sabbath breaking
      14. Lam. 2:6 God caused Israel to forget Sabbaths by destroying the temple
      15. Ezek. 20:12-13 God pours out fury because Israel “polluted my Sabbaths”
      16. Hos. 2:11 God caused the Sabbaths to cease in judgment of forgetting Him
      17. cf. Jer. 34:12-22 Judgment for breaking Land Sabbath
      18. cf. Jer. 34:17 “I proclaim a liberty for you… to the sword”
      19. cf. Neh. 13:18 Judgment for breaking the Sabbath
  7. GOSPEL OCCURRENCES
    1. Jesus taught on the Sabbath
      1. Mk. 1:21 “straightway on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught” (in Capernaum)
      2. Mk. 6:2 “when the Sabbath day was come, he (Jesus) began to teach in the synagogue”
      3. Lk. 4:16 “as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day… to read”
      4. Lk. 4:31 in Capernaum “taught them on the Sabbath days”
      5. Lk. 6:6 “on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught”
      6. Lk. 13:10 “he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath”
    2. Jesus healed on the Sabbath
      1. Healed a man with a paralyzed hand – Matt. 12:9-14; Mk. 3:1-6; Lk. 6:6-11
      2. Healed a man of an unclean spirit – Mk. 1:21-28
      3. Healed a few sick folk. – Mk. 6:1-5 (Lk. 4:16-30 – no mention of healing)
      4. Healed an infirmed woman – Lk. 13:10-17
      5. Healed a certain man with dropsy – Lk. 14:1-6
      6. Healed a man at the pool of Bethesda – Jn. 5:1-16
      7. Healed a man born blind – Jn. 9:14-16
    3. Jesus accused of breaking the Sabbath
      1. Disciples plucked ears of corn – Matt. 12:1-8; Mk. 2:23-28; Lk. 6:1-5
      2. Healed a man with a paralyzed hand – Matt. 12:9-14; Mk. 3:1-6; Lk.6:6-11
      3. Healed an infirmed woman – Lk. 13:10-17
      4. Healed the man at the pool of Bethesda – Jn. 5:1-16
      5. Healed in general – Jn. 7:21-24
    4. Miscellaneous
      1. Jn. 19:31 “for that Sabbath day was a high day” (atonement Sabbath)
      2. Lk. 18:12 “I fast twice in the week” (hypocrite’s prayer)
  8. NON-GOSPEL OCCURRENCES
    1. Apostolic
      1. Acts 1:2 “Sabbath day’s journey” (Mt. Olivet to Jerusalem)
      2. Acts 13:14, 27, 42, 44 Jews and Gentiles hear apostles preach on the Sabbath in Antioch
      3. Acts 15:21 “Moses is read in every synagogue every Sabbath”
      4. Acts 16:13 “on the Sabbath we went out of the city (Philippi) by a riverside”
      5. Acts 17:2 Paul reasoned from the Scriptures for three Sabbaths at Thessalonica
      6. Acts 18:4 Paul reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath at Corinth
    2. Pastoral
      1. 2 Cor. 8:15 “As it is written, He that had gathered much had nothing over; and he that had gathered little had no lack” (Ex. 16:18)
      2. cf. Rom. 14:5-6 “one man esteems one day above another…”
      3. cf. Gal. 4:10 “you observe days and months and seasons and years”
      4. Col. 2:16 “Let no man judge you in respect of a holy day, new moon or of the Sabbath days”
      5. cf. Heb. 4:4 “the seventh day” God did rest from all his works
      6. Heb. 4:9 “There remains, therefore, a (Sabbath) rest to the people of God”
  9. SUNDAY, THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK
    1. Sabbaton or Sabbata translated ‘week’
      1. Matt. 28:1 “as it began to dawn toward the first (day) of the week”
      2. Mk. 16:2 “in the morning the first (day) of the week”
      3. Mk. 16:9 “risen early the first (day) of the week”
      4. Lk. 24:1 “upon the first (day) of the week”
      5. Jn. 20:1 “the first (day) of the week”
      6. Jn. 20:19 “the first (day) of the week”
      7. Acts 20:7 “upon the first (day) of the week, when the disciples came together”
      8. I Cor. 16:2 “upon the first (day) of the week let every one of you lay by him”
      9. cf. Lk. 18:12 “I fast twice in the week (hypocrite’s prayer)
    2. Kuriakos [Gk. 2960] 2 occurences “Lord’s”
      1. Rev. 1:10 “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice”
      2. 1 Cor. 11:20 – Lord’s Supper
    3. Pentekoste [Gk. 4005] 3 occurences “Pentecost”
      1. Acts 2:1; 20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8
  10. TYPOLOGY of rest
    1. Tupos [N.T. 5179] 15 occurrences
      1. 2 ‘print’ – Jn. 20:25 (2)
      2. 2 ‘figure’ – Acts 7:43; Ro 5:14 – Adam a figure of Christ
      3. 1 ‘fashion’ – Acts 7:44
      4. 1 ‘manner’ – Acts 23:25
      5. 1 ‘form’ – Rom. 6:17
      6. 6 ‘example’ – 1 Cor. 10:6; Phil. 3:17; 1 Th. 1:7; 2 Th. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12; 1 Pet. 5:3
      7. 2 ‘pattern’ – Titus 2:7; Heb. 8:5 – Temple built according to the pattern, cf. Ex. 25:40
    2. Antitupos [N.T. 499] 2 occurrences
      1. ‘figure’ – Heb. 9:24 “figures of the true”; 1 Pet. 3:21
    3. Creation Rest, a type of the divine work necessary to provide redemptive rest
      1. Gen. 2:2-3 – God “rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done”
      2. Ex. 20:11 – in six days created the heavens and earth, and on the seventh day He rested
      3. Heb. 4:4-6 – “it remains that some must enter it” Author interprets OT rest typologically as redemptive rest/heaven
    4. Noah, tenth generation of man, a type of an anticipated one who provides rest
      1. Gen. 5:29 Noah to give rest to mankind; in relation to curse of Adam
      2. Gen. 8:4 the ark rests on Mount Ararat
      3. Gen 8:21 Noah’s sacrifice was a smell of “rest” to God
      4. Gen. 9:1 God repeated mandate given to Adam (Noah is a 2nd Adam, that is, a prototype for Christ, who is identified as the second Adam)
      5. Lk 3:36 Noah is in lineage of Christ who is the provider of rest
      6. 1 Pet 3:20 Ark is a type of salvation, identifying Noah’s work as typologically redemptive
    5. Canaan, son of Ham, a type of a cursed one who provides a place of rest
      1. Gen. 9:25 – cursed grandson of Noah (Gal. 3:3 Christ became a curse for us)
      2. Gen. 9:25 – “a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers” (Mk. 9:35; 10:45; Acts 3:13; 3:26; 4:30 Christ is a servant like no other)
      3. Gen. 10:15-19 – prodigious family growth who inherits a favorable land
      4. Gen. 9:25 – first use of ‘servant’ in OT; cf. Zech. 3:8 last use of ‘servant’ in OT is Christ
    6. Abraham, twenty-first (3×7) generation of man, a type of one who trusts God awaiting ultimate rest; already and not yet paradigm
      1. Gen. 12:1 – “to a land that I will show you”
      2. Gen. 12:5-7 – land, blessing, altar; iteration of Adam planted in the garden
      3. Gen. 12:10 – Hope of Canaan postponed; a type of waiting for heaven; already—not yet
      4. Gen. 12:10 – Abraham in Egypt awaiting Canaan
      5. Gen. 49:29 – Jacob in Egypt awaiting Canaan but dies there, but bones brought to Canaan
      6. Gen 50:24-26 – Joseph in Egypt asks to be buried in Canaan; promises that Tribes will return to Canaan
      7. 1 Thess. 4:13-18 – “God will bring with Him those who sleep in Jesus”
      8. Heb. 11:8-10 – to Abraham, the land of promise was a foreign country
      9. Heb. 11:9 – only God could provide the ultimate place of rest
      10. Heb. 11:13-16 – the patriarchs did not receive the promise but desired a heavenly country
    7. Moses, an iteration of Noah, a type of an obedient one who provides rest
      1. Ex. 33:12-17; 39:42-43 – Pleased and obeyed God cp. Gen. 6:8, 22
      2. Ex 2:1-10 – Moses placed in Basket (Heb. tebah=ark ) in the water cp. Gen. 7:7
      3. Ex. 3:8-10 – Moses to lead Israel to the land of rest cp. Gen. 8:17
      4. Ex. 33:14; Deut. 3:23-28; 32:48-52; 34:4; Negatively, final lapse in obedience disqualified from rest cp. Gen. 9:21
    8. Old Covenant with ritual rest, a type of the New Covenant with redemptive rest
      1. Ex. 20:1-17; 24:7-8; 31:12-18; 34:27-29; Lev. 24:5; Jer. 31:31-37; Isa. 56:1-2; 56:6-7; 58:13-14; 66:22-23
      2. Ex. 31:18, 32:15-16 – During Moses’ second advent up Mount Sinai, he received the two tables of the covenant, written on both sides. Ex. 34:1, 28 – Moses broke the first set and God replaced it with a second set. Deuteronomy means second law. The Ten Commandments are twice recorded in Scripture. Deut. 5-26 is Moses’ second discourse to second generation is a retelling of the law. Deut. 17:18 is namesake of the book, commanding the king to make a copy of the law. Deut. 27 puts Israel before the Jordan River a second time, where this second generation must rehearse the law at the foot of two mountains. Deut. 27:2-8 Israel plastered stone monuments and copied the law upon them.
      3. 2 Cor. 3:2-3, 6-18 – Paul considered the events typic of New Covenant, Ex. 34:29-30; Ezek. 11:9; Ps. 40:6-8; Col. 2:14; Heb. 10:9
      4. Heb. 9:3, 7, 15 – Jesus, as the High Priest beyond the second veil, mediated the new covenant to ensure receipt of eternal inheritance
      5. Heb. 8:7; 10:9 – first-second pattern of typology; cf. Gen. 25:23; Rom. 9:10-13; 1 Cor. 15:45-49
    9. The Tabernacle, a type of rest emphasizing the presence of God and fellowship with Him
      1. Ex. 25:9; 26:30 – Pattern shown to Moses
      2. Ex. 29:43-46 – Presence of God, as in the Garden
      3. Ex. 40:35-38; Num. 1:50-51; 10:17 – Tabernacle and Ark moveable places of peace, transitory through sea of humanity awaiting a place of permanent rest and security
      4. Ex. 40:2 – tabernacle erected first day of first month, cp. Gen 8:13
      5. John 1:14; Rev. 21:3 – Jesus is the tabernacle; last use; paradise described
    10. Sabbath, the ultimate type of redemptive rest. Exquisitely detailed by seven pairs of laws, the Sabbath looks to pre-fall Eden and the Exodus for symbolic ideas to design a comprehensive type of complete redemptive rest.
      1. When. Ex. 16:4-31 Israel’s religious week established historically by the giving of the Manna; Gen. 2:1-3; 4:15 The number seven determined by God as a symbol of His perfect work; Ex. 31:16; Lev. 23:32; Neh. 13:19; pictures plight of and rescue of man from sin Ex. 7:1-5; 22-23; 8:15, 32; 10:27-11:1; 11:4-5; 12:30-31, 41, 51; 13:3-5; Deut. 16:6; Ps. 39:5-6; Isa. 9:2 as moving from evening, to darkest midnight, to daybreak of salvation, into an unending fellowship with God.
      2. Where. Ex. 16:29; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 12:10-11; Jer. 17:22 through the concept of Hebrew place-worship, this pictures the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in a believer’s heart. 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 3:17; Jn. 15:4; 2 Jn. 9; Rev 3:12; 14:1. Yet it also looks to Eden as a prototype of the eternal habitation of God with man Gen. 2:8-10; 3:8; Isa. 66:1; Matt 5:35; Acts 7:49; Rev. 21:3. Lastly, separation of peoples, whether in homes, cities, and country, typifies the separation of the godly from the ungodly Deut. 17:5; 2 Chr. 14:6-7; 36:15-21; Neh. 13:19-22; Jer. 17:24, 27; Jn. 10:9, 28-29; Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 3:16; Phil. 3:17-19; 4:7
      3. Why. The problem of sin and the divine solution is symbolized via the two rationales for Sabbath observance. Ex. 20:11, 31:17, the creation week ending with sinless mankind is the reason the Sabbath is hallowed, Gen. 2:2-3; Heb. 4:3-4, and Deut. 5:15, like Passover, the Sabbath is rooted in deliverance from Egypt, a type of salvation from the bondage of sin.
      4. How. Ex. 16:29; 20:9-10; 23:12; 35:2-3; Num. 15:32; Jer. 17:21-22; Neh. 13:15-16, 19 The twin commands to rest and avoid work typify the gospel call to trust in God, rather than in works, to become saved; Ex. 14:12-13; Deut. 5:15; Ps. 38:4; 104:29-30; Eccl 3:19; Joel 1:18-20; Isa. 9:4; 11:5-10; 65:17-25; Hos. 2:18; Jn. 1:13 Rom. 6:15-22; 8:19-22; 1 Cor. 6:9-11; Heb. 4:3; and that redemption applies not only to man, but to the whole realm of creation.
      5. How. Ex. 35:2-3; Deut. 32:21-22; Ps. 50:3; Isa. 47:14; 66:16; Jer. 4:4, 15:14; 17:27; Amos 5:6; Rom 5:9; 1 Thess. 1:10 with a view to Eden, fire signifies judgment Gen. Ex. 12:8-10; Lev. 10:6; 1 Ki. 18; thus, no kindling of fires typifies redemption as freedom from God’s judgment Isa. 43:2; Heb. 10:18; and Ex. 16:23; Josh. 5:11; Mark 15:42; prefigured in the giving of Manna before the Sabbath, preparation beforehand typifies the Godward attitude and faith to receive what is promised; Ex. 12:3-6; Deut. 16:16-17; Lev. 23:42; Lk. 12:47; Acts 17:30-31; Heb. 4:7; 13:10; Rev. 3:20, 22; and the week of preparation symbolizes the work of God in their life bringing them to a place of rest; Ps. 31:19; Matt. 25:34; Jn. 14:1-3; Rom. 9:23; 1 Cor. 2: 9-10; 2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 2:10; Heb. 11:3; Rev. 21:1
      6. Duties. Priestly service of two yearling lambs, a grain offering and drink offering signify that redemptive work is necessary to secure rest, that sin must be addressed. Num. 28:9-10; Ex. 29:42-46; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 9:22; Showbread prefigures the oneness of Christ and the redeemed before the presence of God enjoying the state of rest; Ex. 25:30; Lev. 24:5-9; 1 Chr. 9:32; 23:29; 2 Chr. 13:10; Neh. 10:33; Jn. 6:35; Gal. 3:26-29; Heb. 9:2, 9
      7. Legal. Ex. 16:27-29; Ex. 31:14-15; Num. 15:32-36; Lev. 26:14-15, 33-35; Neh. 13:17; Jer. 17:21-22, 27; 34:13-17; Isa. 1:13-14; 24:5; Ezek. 20:12-13; 22:8; 23:38-39; 44:7 The punishment for Sabbath-breaking speaks of the spiritual end of those who disregard the call to salvation, Phil. 2:12; Heb. 3:12; 4:1; 10:31
    11. Eighth-day calendar laws, a type of new beginning, beyond the seventh day of redemption
      1. Gen. 15:6; 17:10-14; Lev. 12:3; Deut. 30:5-6; Jer. 4:4; Jn. 7:21-24; Rom. 4:11; Gal. 3:14-16 – Circumcision of Abraham typological of superiority of promise, an eighth day ceremony that supersedes the seventh day Sabbath
      2. Lev. 23 – List of seven annual feasts preceded by Sabbath, the eighth member
      3. Lev. 23:29 – eighth day Sabbath of Feast of Tabernacles completes the annual calendar
      4. Lev. 14:7-10 – cleansing of leper involves eighth day of revitalization
      5. Gen. 49:3; Ex. 13:2, 14-15; 22:30; 34:19-20; Lev. 22:27; Num. 3:13; 18:15; Ps. 89:27; Zech. 12:10; Matt. 1:25; Lk. 2:22-23; Jn. 19:26-27; Rom. 8:28; Col. 1:8; Heb. 12:23; Firstborn laws with eighth day rituals prefigure the qualifications, birth order, divinity, and privileges of Christ, and our brotherhood with Him
      6. Lev. 23:6-11; Num. 15:20 – Feast of First Fruits, Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) and Jubilee are eighth-day celebrations, following the passage of seven days, seven weeks, and seven Sabbath years, respectively. NT interpretations associate Christ, the Holy Spirit, and the church with each of these. Lk. 4:16-21; Rom. 8:23; 11:16; 1 Cor. 15:20; Jas. 1:18; Rev. 14:4
      7. 1 Sam. 12-14; Ps. 89:27; Isa. 9:6-7; Rom:4:5-8; Rev. 3:7; 5:5; 22:16 – David, an eighth son, is called first-born as a type of Christ and gospel proclaimer
    12. Joshua
      1. Deut. 1:38; 3:28; 31:1, 3, 7, 14, 23; Josh. 1:13; 4:14; 23:1; 8:30-35; 11:15, 18-23; 14:15; 19:49; 21:43-45; 22:4; 23:1-2, 14-16; Jdg. 2:11-23 – God promises that Joshua, like Moses, will cause Israel to inherit the land, the land of rest; Joshua dies; Israel warned
      2. Heb. 4:8 – Joshua did not give Israel rest
    13. Land of Canaan, a type of a place of rest
      1. Ex. 3:7-8 – God’s plan to take Israel from Egypt to Canaan
      2. Deut. 6:3 – Canaan likened to mandate given to Adam
      3. Deut. 9:6 – Canaan a gift to the unrighteous
      4. Deut. 12:9-10; 25:19 – Lord gives Canaan as rest
      5. Deut. 28:65 – Judgment for disobedience “you shall find no rest”
      6. Josh. 1:13, 15 – Lord giving Canaan as a rest
      7. Josh. 14:15 – Canaan rest after initial conquest
      8. Josh. 21:43-45; 22:4; 23:1 – Canaan rest as fulfilled promise
      9. Ps. 95:11 – Reviews wilderness delay entering rest of Canaan
      10. Mic. 2:10 – Dispossession of Canaan as judgment
      11. Heb. 3:18 – Canaan rest denied for want of Abrahamic faith
      12. Heb. 4:8 – Canaan rest never realized in spite of occupation
    14. Boaz, tenth generation from Abraham, a type of kinsman redeemer who provides rest
      1. Ruth 1:1-2, 9 – Elimelech and sons die in Moab; wife Naomi and daughter-in-law Ruth return to Canaan (Judah) to find rest and the restoration of land, name, inheritance
      2. Ruth 2:1 – Boaz, the seventh character in the book, is a relative of Elimelech and of “great wealth”
      3. Ruth 3:18 – Ruth must “sit still” in order to let Boaz do the work of redemption
      4. Ruth 4:6 – first relative unwilling to risk inheritance for Naomi
      5. Ruth 4:10 – Boaz “perpetuates the name of the dead”
      6. Ruth 4:21-22 – Boaz is great-grandfather to David
      7. Lev. 25:23-25 – kinsman redeemer law
      8. Deut. 7:8; 2 Sam. 7:23 – the Lord is the true redeemer of the land
      9. Eph. 1:11 – in Jesus, we have obtained an inheritance
      10. Heb. 2:11 – Jesus is not ashamed to call us His brethren, whom He redeemed from death
    15. Judges and Kings of Israel, types of the providers of rest
      1. Jdg. 3:11 – Caleb’s nephew and the first Judge of Israel, Othniel (meaning “lion of God” a powerful one), the only Judge from the family of Judah, ended eight years of servitude and provided 40 years of rest. Like Jesus, he was filled with the Spirit, a deliverer and judge of Israel, a provider of rest and prosperity for the people under his rule, and rewarded with a bride for his victory.
      2. Jdg. 3:30 – Ehud (meaning “united”), the second Judge of Israel, ended eighteen years of servitude to King Eglon and provided eighty years of rest, a two-fold escalation. Like Jesus, he was a deliverer of Israel because he single-handedly delivered the quietus to the enemy with a double-edged sword in an unexpected way, and then escaped the guarded chambers to lead his army in vanquishing 10,000 capable soldiers, letting not one of them to escape—a complete victory leading to rest.
      3. Jdg. 5:31 – Barak, the fourth Judge of Israel, with Deborah and Jael, delivered Israel from twenty years of oppression under King Jabin and his commander Sisera, and gave them forty years of rest. Jael, put Sisera to rest while he slept. Jdg. 4:15; 5:4; 1 Sam. 12:11; Heb. 11:32 Barak receives not all the glory, but is later praised, though it was the Lord who brought the victory and ensuing rest.
      4. 1 Sam. 8-10 – Saul, as first king, was rejected in favor of David, an eighth son; the first rejected to establish the second
      5. 2 Sam. 7:1 – Rest under King David; positively, one after God’s heart; negatively, not a murderer
      6. 1 Ki. 5:4; 8: 56; 1 Chr. 22:9 – Rest under King Solomon
      7. 2 Chr. 14:6; 15:15 – Rest under King Asa
      8. 2 Chr. 20:30 – Rest under King Jehosaphat
      9. Heb. 10:7 – Jesus, the everlasting King, comes to do God’s will
      10. 1 Pet. 2:23 – Unlike any other king, Christ did not revile in return
      11. Matt. 25:31ff; Jn. 5:22-30; 8:16; 9:39; Rom 14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10; Heb. 10:29-30; Jude 14-15 – The Lord Jesus is the ultimate judge
      12. Matt. 2:2; 21:4-5; 25:34; 27:11; Mk. 15:2; Lk. 19:38; 23:3; Jn. 1:49; 12:13-15; Jn. 18:37; Acts 17:7; 1 Tim. 1:17; 6:15; Heb 7:1ff [Jesus as antitype to King Melchizedek]; Rev. 15:3; 17:14; 19:16 – The Lord Jesus is the King of kings
    16. The Temple, like the tabernacle, it is a type of rest by virtue of the enduring presence of God in the midst of His people during a period of rest. Figuratively, it is likened to a house, which is where Sabbath-keeping took place; and a sanctuary—or holy place—like Eden, where Adam and Eve enjoyed rest. Christ manifested all that the Temple meant in His person, therefore, He could claim to offer rest Himself without the need of a Temple. Christ’s prediction of the temple’s destruction shows that it could never provide rest and Paul’s teaching that temple laws no longer bound Jews shows the fulfillment of temple foreshadowings. David envisioned a permanent single location of rest, but God envisioned a more glorious rest only shadowed in David’s plan.
      1. 1 Chr. 29:1; 2 Chr. 7:12; 23:5, 36:17; 12; Ps: 78:68-69; 132:13-18; Isa. 2:2, 3; 56:7; 60:7; 64:11; Jn. 2:16; Matt. 21:13 – called a house of God, or of prayer; a sanctuary; a dwelling place or resting place
      2. 2 Sam. 7; 1 Chr. 18:8; 22:2ff; 28:2ff; 1 Ki. 5:3; 7:51 – David plans the temple
      3. 2 Sam. 7:12; 1 Ki. 5:1ff; 6:1-38; 7:13-21; 8:17-20; 24:18-25; 2 Chr. 3:1-14ff – Solomon constructs the temple; 1 Ki. 7:15-22; 8:10-21
      4. 2 Chr. 3:15-17; Ps. 79:1 – the twin pillars, Jachin and Boaz, meaning “He shall establish” and “In it is strength” were not enough to protect the holy place from defilement
      5. 1 Ki. 9:1-9; 2 Chr. 7:12-22 – A man-made temple could never be established forever and could not be strong enough to withstand the onslaught of enemies or the judgment of God
      6. 2 Ki. 11:1ff – Joash hidden in the temple for six years during Athaliah’s reign, and began his reign at age seven; David’s spears and shields kept in the temple used to protect the young King Joash at his ascension to the throne
      7. 2 Ki. 18:14-16 – Hezekiah takes gold from the temple to pay Sennacherib; 2 Ki. 21:3-7 – Manasseh desecrated the temple; Ezek. 8:7-18 wickedness in the temple after the death of Josiah; 2 Chr. 36:5-8; 2 Ki. 23:34-24:7 – Nebuchadnezzar pillages temple and enslaves Jehoiakim; 2 Ki. 25:1ff – final destruction of temple by Nebuchadnezzar during Zedekiah’s reign.
      8. Ezek. 40-43 – Hence, Ezekial’s prophecy of a restored Temple describes one constructed by God that cannot be desecrated or destroyed, Ezek 43:7, that could not be desecrated by Gentiles, Ps. 118:22; Ezek. 11:19; 36:26; 37:26ff; Isa. 28:16; 56:7-8; Jn. 4:21
      9. 2 Chr. 36:23; Ezr. 1:1-4ff; Neh. 12:44 – orders to rebuild the temple; God directed
      10. Matt. 21:12-13; Mk. 11:15-17; Jn. 2:13-17; 18-21 – Jesus shows godly concern for holiness of the temple area; Christ is a manifestation of the temple, to be destroyed and raised up again more gloriously (1st temple destruction followed by Ezekial’s eternal temple vision)
      11. Matt. 12:6; 23:38; Mk. 13:2; 14:58; Jn. 2:19-21; 4:20-24 – Jesus predicts the destruction of the temple
      12. 1 Cor. 3:15-17; 6:19; 2 Cor. 6:14-18; Gal. 4:26; Eph. 2:11-22; 2 Thes. 2:4; 1 Pet. 2:5; Rev. 3:12 – The unified body of believers is identified as a temple of God, corporately and individually, by virtue of their unity in Christ
      13. Acts 21:26-36; Eph. 2:14; – Temple laws no longer applicable to Christians
      14. Rev. 7:5; 11:1-2; 19; 21:22-23 – Heaven is a temple; God encompasses all temple ideals
    17. Purim, a type of rest
      1. Esth. 9:16-32 – Origin of Feast of Purim as a rest from enemies; Dan. 9:26-27; Rom. 11:25-26; 2 Thes. 2:8 – this final type perhaps foreshadowing the rest worldly Jews may enjoy at Christ’s return and His dealing with the man of sin and world enemies who hate Israel

NOTE: Before you proceed further, you may consider outlining every possible verse yourself, reading them all in context several times, and then organizing them in a systematic way. This way, you will be doing original research. I assembled this outline using Young’s Analytical Concordance of the Bible and New Englishman’s Greek Concordance which are based on the KJV. Of course, if you find an error in detail, please let me know. And sorry for the delay in presenting this.