Kien documents a millennial-old problem that affects women in society and suggests a solution. She proposes that women used to be in charge of calendars because any woman would feel like their own physiological changes had a connection with the known universe via the lunar cycles. This link between the human and the elements was mysterious, but it gave women a position of importance in society. Older societies, for lack of the scientific understanding of today, assigned femaleness to the world around them and viewed the universe as a life-giving womb with nurturing attributes. However, the rise of societies and kingdoms led to changing concepts of the universe and fluctuating symbolism to maintain connection with the cosmos. Gods and the planets were increasingly assigned maleness, and this led to marginalization of women.
I share some of Kien’s passions—symbolism, science, archaeology, calendars, and religion—which attracted me to purchase her book, but my presuppositions prevented me from relating to it or giving it much credence. The first half of the book seemed jumbled to me, but the second half more technical and understandable. I do not have the archaeological background that she has, so some of her conclusions may or may not find resounding support among experts. But the thesis that ancient or primitive cultures attributed maleness or femaleness to the sun and moon, and that this in turn is a controlling force over society, is plausible. It mirrors our contemporary question whether media and its worldview influences culture or merely reflects it. But it hardly seems that
she’s uncovered an ancient plot to dissociate women from the spheres of leadership via the symbolism inherent in religions and calendar making. In Kien’s estimation, the moon (representing women) lost the battle with the Sun (representing men) and the present disrespect for, disfranchisement and marginalization of women is the result.
While I found the book interesting, I sensed that I would have enjoyed it more if it were organized along a historical timeline to demonstrate the fluctuating concepts, or to provide some timeline charts to organize the material. Also, I would like to have seen more evidence for some of the assertions she made. In the past, calendar systems ebbed and flowed, or flip-flopped, which demonstrates the practical difficulty in reconciling a lunar and solar calendar, but she didn’t link any of the calendar changes to actual historical evidence of changes in attitudes towards women.
As she reviewed the history of Judaism and Christianity with respect to the calendar, she made several statements that I think were erroneous. For example, she claims that the Jewish calendar evolved and that its lunar aspect is a vestige of previous æons when women priests were in control of the calendar. So she asserts that the twelve tribes of Israel are really thirteen tribes; and that changes in female-controlled calendars to male-controlled calendars are reflected as changes in the biblical story from thirteen to twelve tribes, which makes the Jewish luni-solar calendar male, because it has twelve months (or tribes). As evidence for this from biblical accounts, she cites that Moses counted thirteen tribes, but exempted Levi (which she labels “ephemeral”), and this narrative reflects an effort to remove the symbolism of femaleness in the number 13 to the symbolism of maleness in the number 12. The account is in Numbers 1. Moses is given the task of conducting a census of the tribes for the purposes of warfare. The tribe of Levi was to perform the sacerdotal services of the tabernacle, so they were exempt from warfare. There is an initial listing of twelve military “tribes” in Number 1:1-16—which I put in quotes because Levi is omitted and Joseph’s tribe is counted as two because he had two sons (Josh 14:4). The purpose for the census was to determine their military strength, and the division of Joseph’s tribe is to ensure that three “tribes” flank each face of the tabernacle. Moses then gives the results of the census in Numbers 1:17-46, and mentions in verse 47 that Levi was exempted from the census. The tribe of Levi is not “ephemeral,” but real, extant, and enduring. If one were to graphically represent the numbers of men counted in each tribe and station them by flanks around the tabernacle, then a bird’s eye view of the camp would show the figure of a cross (similar to the crucifixion cross). This is the intended symbolism, which is typological of Christ going to war to defeat His enemies and to give His people rest (Josh 21:44-45; Ps 98:1; Isa 25:11; Acts 2:23-24, 32-36; Col 2:15; Heb 2:14; 1Jn 3:8; Rev 12:9; 20:10).
Kien’s statement that 12 tribes is a “fiction” is nonsense. The twelve tribes are the twelve sons of Jacob, but in military terms, the twelve tribes are comprised differently. So when Moses sent the first spies into Canaan, he mentions Ephraim, and then “from the tribe of Joseph, that is Manasseh” (Num 13:11) so that each of the military tribes sent one man (Levi was exempt). Moses didn’t do this because of changing concepts in calendars, nor does this give evidence that the narrative was altered, and poorly though, as if it left clues of a previous matriarchal story of the events. Kien would have us believe that male priests re-wrote the stories but didn’t do the greatest job at removing all the evidence of a “moon womb 13 month calendar.”
Then Kien also wants to count Dinah as “a semi-matriarchal” tribe, that would bring the tribal count to thirteen. She seems to think that the historical accounts are biased in favor of the number twelve “at all costs” (I’m assuming she means at the cost of historical accuracy). After all, Dinah is mentioned regularly in lists of the twelve tribes (twelve sons) of Israel (Jacob). But Dinah is hardly the only daughter borne of Jacob. Her mention is to invoke the memory of Simeon’s and Levi’s sin of anger and Jacob’s curse upon their tribes to be divided and scattered among the other tribes (Gen 49:5-7). Kien notes that Simeon is not mentioned in Moses’ blessing and interprets this as another clue of the battle between the moon and the sun. But it is more reasonable to assume that Moses simply let Jacob’s curse stand (Josh 19:1); or even that Simeon’s name was inadvertently omitted.
Kien is not happy with Judaism or Christianity which propagate male centered symbolism, and seems more aligned with pagan religions of the past. The calendar by which most of the world orders itself today developed with the growth of civilization, influenced by politics and science, not because of misogyny. A solar calendar is as natural as a lunar calendar. She believes in nature, mystery, holiness, symbolism, and that in the beginning the world was female. She urges religions to adopt inclusive spiritual imagery and for cultures to embrace moon-related festivities as measures to restore value to women and menstruation. As I read the book, I wondered why Kien granted calendars the power to alienate women from nature, to marginalize women from positions of authority, to change men’s attitudes about menstruation, and estrange women from the “cosmic dance.” Why couldn’t women still garner that connection with the moon since it still appears every 29.5 days in the sky? Couldn’t women maintain their “cultic” calendar while the nation they live in uses a “male” solar calendar? She brought this up herself when she described the adoption of a lunar calendar by the Jews. “Using the Babylonian calendar for administrative purposes need not have affected the cultic calendar in any way.” The world still spins ‘round once every day, and that has not changed. But there is a reason why paganism has vanished and the God of Israel remains established: this is His world that He called into existence by the power of His word.
Glossary of Terms. In order to communicate with one another, words and phrases must have consistent and comprehensible meaning, and theological terms must also be biblically derived and defensible. Quite simply, I would like to present some working definitions of key terms and phrases in this debate along with some comments how different camps understand the terms and what some of the potential issues are associated with these terms. This glossary is not meant to be exhaustive nor to replace your favorite theological dictionary; after all, whole books have been written on many of these topics.[i]
Creation in six days. Ex nihilo fabrication (Heb. bārā’) of matter, energy, and time from absolutely nothing in the space of six days by a Spirit being who is omniscient, omnipotent, and eternal. The Genesis narrative (Gen 1) describes the origin of the observable cosmos and the beginning of human history. Paul instructs the church that God’s Son was the active creator of all things in heaven and earth, whether visible or invisible, and that He actively holds in balance the elements of the universe as well as maintaining superintendence over all human societies (Col 1:16-17). A fourth element of this world—information—pre-existed creation, and conveys the personal and triune nature of God (Gen 1:27). Not only do things exist, but they exist in quantity, variation, time intervals, order, value, relationships, and levels of complexity by virtue of the encoded information in living things and the physical properties of matter. “There is nothing in the text itself to indicate that the days are not regular 24-hour days or that they are not real days.”[ii] “At no time does the Pentateuch even hint at anything other than creation in six 24-hour days.”[iii]
The six days must be six actual days in order 1) to provide a true paradigm for Sabbath-keeping (LD, CS, and SS positions) and 2) to form a basis for typological fulfillment which is rooted in real history (LD position). With the advent of evolutionary theory, some biblical scholars question the meaning of those six days. I would assume that those who hold to a non-literal interpretation of the days of creation would have difficulty attributing morality to the sequence of six days work and one day of rest. That is, if the “days” are not really days as we know them, then the moral imperative for Sabbath-keeping based on God’s creation week activities is weakened or not defensible at all. It would be as if God said, “I want you to live your life this way based on a story I made up.” As Duncan and Hall (CS) conclude, “If the cosmogony or aspects of it are merely a literary framework or a didactic tool, then the theology as a whole loses its force…”[iv] Yet, non-literalist Harris (CS) explains that the weekly pattern is merely symbolic of creation and rest, and since our one rest-day symbolizes God’s eternal rest, the remaining six days of our week are merely symbolic of God’s work, no matter how long that took.[v]Hmm.
God ‘rest’ on the seventh day. A predetermined state of having ceased (Heb. shābath) the intended plan of creation by an additional day of symbolic “rest” that He shares with sinless man and creation in perfect harmony. That is, the creation of the cosmos was completed in the duration of six days, and the next day, having finished, ceased, and completed His work, God set apart (i.e., sanctified) and blessed (Gen 2:1-3), thus intentionally and designedly giving significance to a seven-period. This solitary day of cessation implies 1) an attained state of beatitude for God, which is called “His rest” (Heb 4:3-4, 10), and 2) a heightened state of completion by inclusion of the seventh day. “The Hebrew there does not literally mean that God rested after creating the world and everything in it, but that God ‘ceased’ from the divine labors on the seventh day.”[vi] That is, the idea of finding relief following strenuous labor is not the point of the text; only that God finished His work and that His work was flawlessly beautiful to Him. Therefore, the reader of the text would yearn for the peace and holy fellowship characterized by the seventh day, not merely a weekly day off work. “For the writer of Genesis 1-2, the significance of the Sabbath [later given to Israel] partakes of the significance that adheres to seven-day purification cycles in general.”[vii] Again, the reader of the text would comprehend that the number seven has significance to the God who created him. CS and SS: hold that the seventh day of the creation week marks the institution of the first of a recurring weekly sabbatic rest for mankind. LD denies.
While the omission of the phrase “the evening and the morning” on the seventh day may suggest an eternal “rest” or state of completion, the mundane reality is that it was still the seventh day of the first week of creation and it was the second day of Adam’s existence. God did not call the first day of the second week a day of rest, and so on; and yet God did not behave differently on the succeeding days (8, 9, 10, . . .) than He did on the seventh day. Furthermore, God did not need to rest in the same way that fallen mankind needs to rest from labor, therefore His “rest” is of a different order. Adam did not perform seven days of labor prior to God’s “rest”, so Adam had nothing to rest from and no cosmic rhythm that obliged his soul. The fact that Adam and Eve did not remain in that symbolic eternal “rest” further suggests the introduction of sin into the world soon after their creation, likely on the seventh day. So, Adam did not perform six days work prior to God’s rest, and Adam did not remain in God’s rest since he was banished to work outside the garden by the sweat of his brow. Just as clearly as the text disallows epochs of time, so it disallows a weekly Sabbath.
Rest. As a verb (Heb. sābath or menûha; Gk. anapauō or katapauō), to cease (Gen 2:2-3), often from labor (Ex 5:5), and thereby to enter a state of repose (Ex 34:21), refreshment (Deut 5:14; Isa 28:12; Mk 6:31), security (Ru 3:1), or peace (Josh 22:4; Lam 1:3); even the cessation of life’s labors (Dan 12:13; Rev 6:11). As a noun, it alludes to the seventh day of creation as God’s rest, a symbol of a right relationship with God (Heb 4:10); the Sabbath as a day of rest (Ex 31:15); the land of Canaan as a place of rest (Deut 3:20; Josh 1:13); the absence of military conflicts as a state of rest (Josh 23:1; Esth 9:22); and redemption in the person of Jesus Christ as true soulical rest (Ex 33:14; Deut 3:20; Matt 11:28; Heb 4:3, 9). “No human has ever created like God did, and, therefore, no human could rest like He did.”[viii] “Comprehensive reflection… leads to the conclusion… the OT points beyond itself, and that the rest is still in the sphere of promise.”[ix] See Part 2c What are the Texts?
The theme of rest is present throughout Scripture, from Genesis to Revelation (See previous outline of Scripture). God’s seventh day rest, a time of magnificent perfection and holiness, became a reality lost due to man’s sin and subsequent expulsion from the Garden, whereas redemption and the re-creation of a new heavens and earth restore fallen, yet forgiven, people to God’s eternal “rest.” The concept of spiritual rest is re-introduced to national Israel ritualistically by way of weekly and annual Sabbaths, the Sabbath of the Land, Jubilee, Canaan, the temple, seven-periods, and through the lives of various leaders. Yet, Israel never experienced true rest as symbolized by the seventh day when God “rested.” This fact underscores the symbolism of Israel’s various rests as shadows of the perfect provider of a perfect rest (Col 2:16). In Christ, believers receive the already/not yet fulfilment of that rest (Heb 4:3).
[i] Resources consulted: The Theological Wordbook, Campbell, et.al.; Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Harris, et.al.; New Englishman’s Greek Concordance, Wigram; Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words; The Westminster Theological Wordbook of the Bible, Gowan, ed.; Kittle’s Theological Dictionary of the New Testament.
[ii] Shaw, Benjamin (CS), “The Literal-Day Interpretation” in Did God Create in Six Days?, Eds. Pipa and Hall; White Hall, WV: Tolle Lege Press, 2005; p.214.
[iii] Duncan, J. Ligon III and Hall, David W. “The 24-Hour View” in The Genesis Debate, ed. David G. Hagopian, Mission Viejo, CA:Crux Press, Inc., 2001; p. 36.
[iv] Duncan, J. Ligon III and Hall, David W. “The 24-Hour View” in The Genesis Debate, ed. David G. Hagopian, Mission Viejo, CA:Crux Press, Inc., 2001; p. 25.
[v] Harris, R. Laird, “The Length of the Creative Days in Genesis 1” in Did God Create in Six Days?, Eds. Pipa and Hall; White Hall, WV: Tolle Lege Press, 2005; p. 109-111. See also, Young, E. J. “Sabbath” in The New Bible Dictionary who says “Thus there appears the distinction between the six days of labour and the one of rest. This is true, even if the six days of labour be construed as periods of time longer than twenty-four hours. The language is anthropomorphic, for God is not a weary workman in need of rest. Nevertheless, the pattern is here set for man to follow.” In other words, even if these were not days as we understand them, God, having used anthropomorphic language to convey a pattern rather than a reality, implies an obligation to follow this pattern. This is true, even if it is false.
[vi] Klagsbrun, Francine. The Fourth Commandment, p. 26.
[vii] Meier, Samuel A. “The Sabbath and Purification Cycles” in The Sabbath in Jewish and Christian Traditions, ed. Eskanazi, et. al., Crossroad Publishing: New York, 1991, p. 9.
[viii] Jeanson, Nathaniel T. “The Lost Treasures of Genesis” ICR:Dallas, TX, 2013, p. 33. (Italics in the original)
[ix] “katapauo” TDNT, Vol. 3, p. 627.
Published in 1926, this little volume purports to be among the first to study the origin of the week, preceded by only one book nearly a century before. Indeed, the topic is rarely presented because of the dearth of material, and what historical evidence exists, allows some conjecture. This is not to say that nothing conclusive can be stated, but there are questions that remain.
- Why did the Roman Empire change from an eight-day week to a seven-day week?
- What is the origin of the Planetary week? Did it arise independently of the Jewish week?
- What was the thinking process or the decisive event that led to the naming of the days of the week?
- Why does the number seven resonate with peoples of differing cultures?
My previous reading on this general topic includes Duncan’s Calendar, Webster’s Rest Days, Jordan’s Christianity and the Calendar, and Doig’s New Testament Chronology. Duncan does not give much attention to the week, however, he concurs with Colson that the “planetary” names for the days of the week are in the order that they are because of a technique that assigns a planet to each of the twenty-four hours of a day. The planet that begins the first hour of the day assumes the title of that day. Colson was familiar with Webster’s 1916 book, which assumes that all religious and civil observations have their origin in rudimentary beliefs and customs, and often in the superstitions of barbaric societies. Similarly, Colson does not give credence to the biblical account of the origin of the week or the Sabbath. But at the same time, none of the naturalistic theories seem to resonate with him, and he asserts instead that the origin of the Jewish week is lost to antiquity. But it is interesting that no archaeological and anthropological studies have uncovered any alternative theory than what is already presented in the biblical narratives.
What we do know is that Rome had an eight-day week. Egypt had a ten-day week and classical Greeks had none. Various other societies had “weeks” of 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 days, but not necessarily as cycles of weeks. The oldest evidence of a seven-day week is with Judaism, and it appears that Rome adopted its seven-day week in the first century AD. But Colson curiously thinks this originated independently of Jewish influence. Etymological studies demonstrate that host nations subject to Roman rule adopted the Roman nomenclature for the most part, since commerce, military operations, and political events required it. In a few instances, as a result of the spread of Christianity, Saturday and Sunday gave way to Sabbata and Domingo. But this still doesn’t explain why an unchanging seven-day cycle should become the status quo within a luni-solar calendar, and especially with peoples who are not necessarily accustomed to Judaism.
This book is interesting to read as the author considers and interprets his findings in Greek and Roman literature. He is familiar with Scripture, but is selective in what he considers as evidence. Does he make the same conclusions I would with the same evidence? Often yes, but not always. Regarding the naming of the Lord’s Day for Sunday, he favorably states, “I see no reason to go outside Christian thought to account for the name Lord’s-day.” He muses that a celebration of the resurrection would naturally be an annual event, but because Christianity was initially a Jewish movement that grew to encompass Gentiles, and that both cultures operated in seven-day cycles, it was natural that Christianity maintained the weekly cycle. However, he specifically discounts apostolic authority for its continuation. I agree with his assertion that when early Christians assembled on the 7th +1 day instead of on the 7th, it was not keeping the Sabbath. However, I disagree with his conclusion that the abrogation of the Sabbath destroyed the reason for the week. In my opinion, the week, or seven-period, is divine in origin. The weekly Sabbath unified Israel under the Mosaic covenant and the weekly Lord’s Day unifies the church under the New Covenant. Shifting the day of assembly maintained the weekly cycle and caused no calendar upset, yet conclusively broke the grip of the Sabbath on New Covenant believers.
Evaluating the Strength of Arguments in the Sabbath/Lord’s Day Controversy, Part 2d: What are the Terms?
Terms and Definitions. The entry from the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT) for “shabbāt” (i.e., Sabbath) says “Everything God made, as recorded in Genesis, he called good. Only the Sabbath, however, he sanctified, indicating perhaps that the climax of creation was not the creation of man, as is often stated, but the day of rest, the seventh day.” Read this quote again for understanding. What is the author affirming, implying, or speculating? Really. Read it again and assess what the author is concluding from the text and the context. Give this some thought.
The author (contributor Victor P. Hamilton) apparently believes that the sanctification of a day—just that one day—overshadows God creating man and woman after His own image. Sure, he said “perhaps”, but this is supposed to be a scholarly reference work of the highest caliber. This is to be contrasted with Watts who asserts that “Gen. 1:27 accords the creation of humanity a special status (as indicated by being last in the ascending order, the exceptional divine jussive ’let us,’ and the threefold use of bārā’.)” The questionable nature of the statement from the TWOT comes from the fact that the creation ended on the sixth day; therefore, the sanctification of the seventh day cannot be the climax of creation. The climax of creation would be the last thing that God created, that is, man and woman on the sixth day. Lisle states the obvious, “[The seventh day] isn’t a ‘creation day’ as Ross falsely labels it.”
“So God created (bārā’) man in his own image, in the image of God created (bārā’) he him; male and female, created (bārā’) he them” (Gen 1:27).
This is the last sentence in the creation narrative that thrice uses the word “bārā’” (i.e., create). God sanctified (not created) the seventh day because “in it he had rested (or ceased) from all his work which God created and made” (Gen 2:3). The day of ceasing cannot be a day of creating. Creation was complete before the seventh day. The seventh day was not “created” in the same sense as the things described on days one through six.
Furthermore, though Exodus later links the newly instituted Sabbath with the seventh day of creation, the word “shabbāt” is not used in Genesis. Hamilton’s assumption that God’s rest (shābath) on the seventh day is identical to the Sabbath (shabbāt) is not supported by the text. However, building upon this assumption, Hamilton further asserts that “The Sabbath is thus an invitation to rejoice in God’s creation, and recognize God’s sovereignty over our time.” Again, this conclusion is unsubstantiated. Nowhere in the Bible does Sabbath law mandate rejoicing in creation or recognizing God’s sovereignty over our time. Not that there’s anything wrong with these spiritual disciplines—you can do them any day of the week—but the Sabbath does not expressly and/or exclusively lead to that conclusion. If Paul can assert that “the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse” (Rom 1:20), then why would God limit the obvious to one day in a week? Psalm 92, designated for the Sabbath day, does not reflect on God’s creation or the value of time, rather it focuses on God’s favor toward the redeemed (hint, hint). That is, the impetus for Sabbath worship is redemption, not creation. Psalm 148, which specifically urges praise for God the creator, does not invoke the Sabbath for motivation. It is a song of awe and wonder for any day of the week, and finds its motivation through the simple act of observation and the a priori belief that God is the creator of the observable universe. Psalm 90, which considers the seventy year lifespan of man on earth and the eternality of God, gives no nod to the Sabbath.
While many theologians attempt to infuse the Sabbath with some sort of wonder for time and creation, this association is not directly demonstrable from Scripture. Modern Jewish writers also capitalize on these two aspects—the holiness of time and of space—to add value to the Sabbath command.
“Jewish ritual may be characterized as the art of significant forms in time, as architecture of time.”
“Unlike the Day of Atonement, the Sabbath is not dedicated exclusively to spiritual goals. It is a day of the soul as well as of the body; comfort and pleasure an integral part of the Sabbath observance. Man in his entirety, all his faculties must share its blessing.”
If this is what makes the Sabbath special, then Sabbath is a geocentric and anthropocentric ritual. Without Jesus, Jews practically deify the Sabbath. “For where can the likeness of God be found?” Heschel queries. He rejoins, “…the likeness of God can be found in time, which is eternity in disguise.” Heschel continues, “The Sabbath preceded creation and the Sabbath completed creation; it is all of the spirit that the world can bear.”  But the New Covenant theology is clear: Jesus preceded creation and He completed creation. Jesus, the Messiah, is the true and complete image of God. The Lord’s Day, which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus, is quite different in essence than the Sabbath. It is Christocentric.
He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. (Col 1:15-17, NKJV)
Hamilton’s statements likely resonated with those of the CS and SS positions, but they epitomize the kind of rhetoric that predominates the literature. And his comments are uncomfortably comparable to the Jewish infatuation for the Sabbath. He is a Bible scholar, who for the moment, let hermeneutics lapse while reciting a church catechism or something that just sounded good to him. Hamilton offered no conclusive argument that the seventh day when God rested was of the same species as the Sabbath when Israel was commanded to rest—he merely assumed identity based on the reference to the creation week in the fourth commandment (Ex 20:11). Christian theologians and pastors better serve the church by proclaiming the first-day light of Christ’s resurrection and His supremacy over the Sabbath.
Based on this reference to creation in Exodus, we may ask: What is the nature of the relationship between God’s rest and the Sabbath? Is there a plausible reason why the Lord associated the creation week with Israel’s weekly Sabbath? In what ways are the Lord’s rest and Israel’s rest similar? In what ways are they different? What do the specific Sabbath laws that Israel was enjoined to obey have to do with God’s rest? In the same way, we may ask, based on the reference to redemption in Deuteronomy 5:15: What is the nature of the relationship between Israel’s redemption and the Sabbath? Is there a plausible reason why the Lord associated Israel’s redemption from Egypt with Israel’s weekly Sabbath? In what ways are Israel’s redemption and Israel’s weekly rest similar? In what ways are they different? What do the specific Sabbath laws that Israel was enjoined to obey have to do with their redemption? Lastly, given the association of both the creation rest and Israel’s redemption with the Sabbath, how are these two events related? In what ways are the Lord’s solitary day of rest following creation similar to Israel’s (apparent) release from the grip of Egypt? Is one of these reasons for the Sabbath—creation or redemption—more important than the other? And if so, why? Does this mean that there is a “creation Sabbath” for a perfect humanity, but a “redemption Sabbath” for imperfect Israelites? How are these two types of Sabbath different and alike?
 TWOT, p. 903.
 Watts, Rick E. “Mark” in Commentary on the NT Use of the OT, Beale and Carson, eds., p. 197.
 Though the Creator likely made the Garden of Eden shortly following the creation of Adam and Eve. The Garden of Eden was made for man; “there he put the man whom he had formed” (Gen 2:8).
 Lisle, Jason. Understanding Genesis, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 2015, p. 223.
 Heschel, The Sabbath, p. 8. (Italics in the original).
 Heschel, The Sabbath, p. 19.
 Heschel, The Sabbath, p. 16.
 Heschel, The Sabbath, p. 21. Heschel also likens the Sabbath to Adam. “It is not good that the spirit should be alone, so Israel was destined to be a helpmeet for the Sabbath.” p. 52.
 For sake of brevity, the following abbreviations stand for the three main views: Lord’s Day (LD), Christian Sabbath (CS), and Saturday Sabbath (SS).
This is a collection of five discourses presented by the New York Sabbath Committee in 1862. It is a rather obscure book but contributes a sketch of American Sabbatarianism at the beginning of the Civil War. Mr. Robert Carter (1807-1889) provides the introduction, and he is both the publisher and a founding member of the Sabbath Committee. Carter explains that this anthology represents one aspect of the Committee’s efforts to inculcate a respect for the Christian Sabbath by providing theological literature for pastors and interested readers. At issue are businesses open on Sunday, the differing viewpoints and activities of European immigrants (specifically German Lutherans) with their Sunday Theater and Beer Gardens, the movement of troops in the current war, the hawking of newspapers on Sunday, and Christians who hold to the abrogation of the Sabbath—each of which contributes to a decrease in morality.
Five New York City pastors lend their expertise in laying down the history, authority, duties, and benefits of Sabbath observance, with a final discourse on the matter of applying these principles in a free society. The discourses are short on biblical exegesis, yet grandiose in style and reasoning. Rice promotes the idea of a Sabbath kept by Adam and the patriarchs, a theological idea he admits was not supported by Luther or Calvin. Hague simply states that God is the author of the Sabbath, but it is “susceptible of adjustment” from one era to another, coming to its final resting place on Sunday. Ganse lays out the paradigm for proper Sabbath conduct and spends a fair amount of time addressing how parents should teach their children to love the Sabbath. Adams discusses the physical, intellectual, social, and religious benefits of Sabbath-keeping, but has misgivings about “recreations” on the Sabbath, equating a walk in the park with dissipation. Finally, Vinton summarizes the rationale for establishing civil participation in this Sabbath concept since all law is an expression of some religion or another. My favorite chapters were Sabbath Duties by Ganse and the Civil Sabbath by Vinton.
The United States is nearly a hundred years old for these writers, so they are closer to the issues of church and state that plagued Europe since the Reformation. They uphold the American experiment and understand the necessity of a moral underpinning to promote a national welfare. These are passionate Christian men who love the Lord and are alarmed at the downturn in public values. Unfortunately, their premise of an archetypical and universal Sabbath that was later codified in the Ten Commandments and then moved to Sunday is not correct. And everything that flows from this premise is suspect. They uniformly and almost exclusively refer to the Lord’s Day (Sunday) as the Sabbath. But their love for the “Sabbath” is really an expression of their love for the Lord’s Day and would it be that more Christians thus regarded it for the spiritual benefits to be gained (absent Sabbatarianism). The book is available in print or in electronic format.
Evaluating the Strength of Arguments in the Sabbath/Lord’s Day Controversy, Part 2c: What are the Texts?
With an awareness of the three major positions of the debate and a general survey of the most significant verses on the topic with a host a questions to answer, it is time to expand our study to the numerous Bible verses that apply to the subject. Following are all verses that mention rest, Sabbath, related feasts and festivals. Other verses may apply in a tangential way, but the following verses are strictly about or related to the Sabbath and Lord’s Day. The final section on typology is a basic presentation of the pervasive theme of rest as it relates to the provider of rest, the state of rest, and the place of rest.
Sabbath Scriptures Outlined
Shabbath [O.T. 7676] 111 occurrences
- 110 ‘sabbath’ or ‘sabbaths’ Ex. 16:23, 25, 26, 29; 20:8, 10, 11; 31:13, 14, 15(2), 16(2); 35:2, 3; Lev. 16:31; 19:3, 30; 23:3(2), 11, 15(2), 16, 32(2), 38; 24:8(2); 25:2, 4(2), 6, 8(2); 26:2, 26:34(2), 35, 43; Num. 15:32; 28:9, 10(2); Deut. 5:12, 14, 15; 2 Ki. 4:23; 11:5, 7, 9(2); 16:18; 1 Ch. 9:32(2); 23:31; 2 Ch. 2:4; 8:13; 23:4, 23:8(2); 31:3; 36:21; Neh. 9:14; 10:31(2), 33; 13:15(2), 16, 17, 18, 19(3), 21, 22; Ps. 92:1; Isa. 1:13; 56:2, 4, 6; 58:13(2); 66:23(2); Jer. 17:21, 22(2), 24(2), 27(2); Lam. 2:6; Ezek. 20:12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24; 22:8, 26; 23:38; 44:24; 45:17; 46:1, 3, 4, 12; Hos. 2:11; Amos 8:5
- 1 ‘another’ in Isa. 66:23 “one sabbath to another”
Shabbathon [O.T. 7677] 11 occurrences
- 8 ‘rest’ Ex. 16:23; 31:15; 35:2; Lev. 16:31; 23:3, 32; 25:4, 5
- 3 ‘sabbath’ Lev. 23:24, 39 (2)
Mishbattim. [O.T. 4868] 1 occurrence
- 1 ‘sabbaths’ or ‘downfall’ or ‘cessation’ Lam. 1:7
Shabath [O.T. 7673] 71 occurrences
Gen. 2:2, 2:3; 8:22; Ex. 5:5; 12:15; 16:30; 23:12; 31:17; 34:21(2); Lev. 2:13, 23:32; 25:2; 26:6, 34, 35(2); Deut. 32:26; Josh. 5:12; 22:25; Ruth 4:14; 2 Ki. 23:5, 11; 2 Ch.16:5; 36:21; Neh. 4:11; 6:3; Job. 32:1; Ps. 8:2; 46:9; 89:44; 119:119; Prov. 18:18; 22:10; Isa. 13:11; 14:4(2); 16:10; 17:3; 21:2; 24:8(2); 30:11; 33:8; Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 31:36; 36:29; 48:33, 35; Lam. 5:14, 15; Ezek. 6:6; 7:24; 12:23; 16:41; 23:27, 48; 26:13; 30:10, 13, 18; 33:28; 34:10, 25; Dan. 9:27; 11:18; Hos. 1:4; 2:11; 7:4; Amos 8:4
- 18 ‘to cause to cease’ – Neh. 4:11; Prov. 18:18; Isa. 13:11; 30:11; Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 36:29; 48:35; Ezek. 16:41; 23:48; 26:13; 30:13, 34:10, 25; Dan. 9:27; 11:18; Hos. 1:4; 2:11
- 14 ‘cease’ – Gen. 8:22; Josh. 5:12; Neh. 6:3; Job. 32:1; Prov. 22:10; Isa. 14:4(2); 24:8(2); 33:8; Jer. 31:36; Lam. 5:14, 15; Hos. 7:4
- 10 ‘make to cease’ – Deut. 32:26; Josh. 22:25; Ps. 46:9; 89:44; Isa. 16:10; 21:2; Ezek. 7:24; 12:23; 23:27, 30:10
- 10 ‘rest’ or ‘rested’ – Gen. 2:2, 3; Ex. 16:30, 23:12, 31:17, 34:21(2); Lev. 26:34, 35(2)
- 4 ‘cease’ – Isa. 17:3; Ezek. 6:6; 30:18; 33:28
- 1 land ‘keep sabbath’ – Lev. 25:2
- 1 ‘celebrate’ your sabbath – Lev. 23:32
- 13 various renderings –
Ex. 5:5; 12:15; Lev. 2:13, 26:6, Ruth 4:14; 2 Ki. 23:5, 11; 2 Ch.16:5; 36:21; Ps. 8:2; 119:119; Jer. 48:33; Amos 8:4
Shabua [O.T. 7620] 20 occurrences
- 19 ‘week’ or ‘weeks’ – Gen. 29:27, 28; Ex. 34:22; Lev. 12:5; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:9(2), 10, 16; 2 Chr. 8:13; Jer. 5:24; Dan. 9:24, 25(2), 26, 27(2); 10:2, 3
- 1 ‘seven’ Ezek. 45:21
Sheba or Shibah [O.T. 7651] 394 occurrences – ‘seven,’ ‘sevenfold,’ ‘seven times,’ or ‘seventh’
- ‘Seven days’ 83 occurrences, e.g. Gen. 7:4, 10; 8:10; 31:23; 50:10; Ex. 7:25; 12:15, 19; 13:6, 7
- ‘Seven months’ 3 occurrences, 1 Sam. 6:1; Ezek. 39:12, 14
- ‘Seven years’ 37 occurrences, e.g. Lev. 25:8; Deut. 15:1; 31:10; 1 Ki. 16:38 (years building the Solomonic Temple); Jer. 34:14
- ‘sevenfold’ 5 occurrences, Gen. 4:15, 24; Ps. 79:12; Prov. 6:31; Isa 30:26
Shebii [O.T. 7637] 97 occurrences
‘Seventh day’ 50 occurrences
- Creation – Gen 2:2(2), 3; Ex. 20:11; 31:17
- Sabbath – Ex. 12:15, 16; 16:26,27, 29, 30; 20:10; 23:12; 34:21; 35:2; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:14
- Clean – Lev. 13:5, 6, 27, 32, 34, 51; 14:9, 39; Num. 6:9; 19:12(2), 19(2); 31:19, 24
- Feasts – Ex. 13:6; Lev. 23:8; Num. 28:25; 29:32; Deut. 16:8; Ezek. 45:20
- Other – Ex. 24:16; Num. 7:48; Josh. 6:4, 15; Judg. 14:15, 17, 18; 2 Sam. 12:18; 1 Ki. 20:29; 2 Ki. 25:8; Esth. 1:10; Ezek. 30:20
- ‘Seventh month’ 26 occurrences, e.g. Gen. 8:4; Lev. 16:29; 23:24, 27, 34, 39, 41; 25:9; Num. 29:1, 7, 12; 1 Ki. 8:2; 2 Chr. 5:3; Ezra 3:1,6; Neh. 7:73; 8:2, 14; Ezek. 45:25
- ‘Seventh year’ 14 occurrences, e.g. Ex. 23:11; Lev. 25:4, 20; Deut. 15:9, 12
Chodesh [O.T. 2320] 283 occurrences
- 258 ‘month(s)’ – e.g. Gen. 7:11; 8:4, 5, 13, 14; Ex. 2:12; 40:17; Lev. 23:5, 6, 24,27, 32, 34, 39, 41;
- 22 ‘new moon(s)’ – Num. 29:6; 1 Chr. 23:31; 2 Chr. 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; 1 Sam. 20:5, 18, 24; 2 Ki. 4:23; Ezra 3:5; Neh. 10:33; Ps 81:3; Isa. 1:13, 14; 66:23; Ezek. 45:17; 46:1, 3, 6; Hos 2:11; 5:7; Amos 8:5
Manoach [O.T. 4494] 6 occurrences.
- rest – Gen. 8:9; Deut. 28:65; Ruth 3:1; Ps. 116:7; Lam. 1:30; Isa. 34:14
Menuchah [O.T. 4496] 22 occurrences.
- place of rest – Gen. 49:15; Num. 10:33; Deut. 12:9; Ruth 1:9; 1 Ki. 8:56; 1 Ch. 22:9; 28:2; Ps. 95:11; 116:7;
132:8, 14; Isa. 11:10; 28:12; 32:18; 66:1; Jer. 45:3; Mic. 2:10; Zech. 9:1
- Other – Jdg. 20:43; 2 Sa. 14:17; Ps. 23:2; Jer. 51:59
- place of rest – Gen. 49:15; Num. 10:33; Deut. 12:9; Ruth 1:9; 1 Ki. 8:56; 1 Ch. 22:9; 28:2; Ps. 95:11; 116:7;
- Margoa [O.T. 4771] “rest for you soul” Jer. 6:16
Nuach [O.T. 5117] 67 occurrences. ‘to be at rest,’ ‘rested’
- 26 – ‘rest,’ ‘rested’ Gen. 8:4; Ex. 10:14: 20:11; 23:12; Num. 10:36; 11:25, 26; Deut. 5:14; Josh. 3:13; 2 Sa. 21:10; 2 Ki. 2:15; Esth. 9:17, 18, 22; Job 3:13, 17; Ps. 125:3; Prov. 14:33; Eccl. 7:9; Isa. 7:19; 11:2; 14:7; 23:12; 25:10; 57:2; Lam. 5:5; Dan. 12:13; Hab. 3:16
- 29 – ‘give rest,’ ’cause to rest’ Ex. 33:14; Deut. 3:20; 12:10; 25:19; Josh. 1:13, 15; 21:44; 22:4; 23:1; 2 Sam. 7:1, 11; 1 Ki. 5:4; 1 Chr. 22:9, 18; 23:25; 2 Chr. 14:6, 7; 15:15; 20:30; Neh. 9:28; Prov. 29:17; Isa. 14:3; 28:12; 63:14; Ezek. 5:13; 16:42; 21:17; 24:13; 44:30
- 13 – Other Ex. 17:11; 1 Sam. 25:9; 2 Sam. 17:12; Job 3:26; Prov. 21:16; Isa. 7:2, 30:32; Ezek. 37:1; 40:2 Zech. 6:8
Nuach [O.T. 5118] 2 occurences. ‘resting place’, ‘had rest’
- 2 Chr 6:41; Esth 9:16
Anapauo [N.T. 373] ‘rest’
- 4 – ‘refresh’ 1 Cor. 16:18; 2 Cor. 7:13; Philem. 7, 20
- 8 – ‘rest’ Matt. 11:28 (“I will give you rest”); 26:45; Mk. 6:31; 14:41; Lk. 12:19; 1 Pet. 4:14; Rev. 6:11; 14:13
Anapausis [N.T. 372] 5 occurrences. an intermission or state of rest; used in the Septuagint to translate Heb. Shabbath ‘cessation, refreshment, rest’
- 5 – ‘rest’ Matt 11:29 (“rest for your souls”); 12:43; Lk. 11:24; Rev. 4:8; 14:11
Katapauo [N.T. 2664] 4 occurrences. ‘to cease’
- 3 – ‘rest’ Heb. 4:4, 8, 10
- 1 – ‘restrain’ Acts 14:18
Katapausis [N.T. 2663], ‘rest’
- 9 – ‘rest’ – Acts 7:49; Heb. 3:11, 18; 4:1, 3(2), 5, 10, 11
Sabbata [N.T. 4521] 68 occurrences. Neuter plural noun, transliterated from singular Aramaic; and Sabbaton, singular noun, formed from the mistaken plural
Matt. 12:1, 2, 5(2), 8, 10, 11, 12; 24:20; 28:1(2); Mark 1:21; 2:23, 24, 27(2), 28; 3:2, 4; 6:2; 16:1, 2, 9; Luke 4:16, 31; 6:1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9; 13:10, 14(2), 15, 16; 14:1, 3, 5; 18:12; 23:54, 56; 24:1; John 5:9, 10, 16, 18; 7:22, 23(2); 9:14, 16; 19:31(2); 20:1, 19; Acts 1:12; 13:14, 27, 42, 44; 15:21; 16:13; 17:2; 18:4; 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Col. 2:16
- Sabbaton: 41 occurrences – 39 as ‘Sabbath’ and 2 as ‘week’
- Sabbata: 27 occurrences – 20 as ‘Sabbath’ and 7 as ‘week’
- Sabbaton: Matt. 12:2, 5, 8; 24:20; Mk. 2:27(2), 28; 6:2; 16:1; Lk. 6:1, 5, 6, 7; 13:14, 15, 16; 14:1, 3; 23:54, 56; Jn. 5:9, 10, 16, 18; 7:22, 23(2), 9:14, 16; 19:31(2); Acts 1:12; 13:27, 42, 44; 15:21; 18:4
- Sabbata: Matt. 12:1, 5, 10, 11, 12; 28:1; Mk.1:21, 23, 24; 3:2, 4; Lk. 6:2, 9; 13:10
5 ‘Sabbath day’
- Sabbaton: Luke 13:14; 14:5
- Sabbata: Luke 4:16; Acts 13:14; 16:13
- Sabbaton: none
- Sabbata: Lk. 4:31; Acts 17:2; Col. 2:16
- Sabbaton: Mk. 16:9; Lk. 18:12
- Sabbata: Matt. 28:1; Mk. 16:2; Lk. 24:1; Jn. 20:1, 19; Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:2
- Sabbatismos [N.T. 4520] ‘rest’ or ‘sabbath-keeping’ – Heb. 4:9
- Prosabbaton [N.T. 4315] ‘day before the Sabbath’ Mk. 15:42
- Neomenia [N.T. 3561] ‘New Moon’ Col. 2:16
- Seventh Day – Ex. 16:26; (Gen. 2:2; Heb. 4:4)
- Given – Ex. 16:29; Ezek. 20:12 “the Lord has given you the Sabbath”
- Hallowed – Ex. 20:11
- Holy – Ex. 31:15; Neh. 9:14
- A Holy Day – Ex. 35:2
- Holy Convocation – Lev. 23:3, 38
- Rest of the Holy Sabbath unto the Lord – Ex. 16:23
- Blessed and Hallowed – Ex. 20:11
- A Sabbath of Rest – Ex. 30:10; 31:15; 35:2; Lev. 23:3, 32; 25:4; cf. Lev. 16:31 (atonement Sabbath)
- A Sabbath of Rest to the Lord – Ex. 35:2
- Sabbath of Rest unto you – Lev. 16:31
- Sabbath unto the Lord – Ex. 16:25
- Sabbath of the Lord thy God – Ex. 20:10; Deut. 5:14
- My Sabbaths – Ex. 31:13; Lev. 19:3, 30; 26:2; Ezek. 20:12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24; 22:8, 26; 23:38; 44:24; Isa. 56:4
- Sabbath of the Lord – Lev. 23:3, 38
- My Holy Day, the Holy of the Lord – Isa. 58:13
- A Delight, Honorable – Isa. 58:13
Day of Atonement so regarded – Lev. 23:27-32 (tenth day of seventh month)
- cf. Jn. 19:31 “for that Sabbath day was a high day”
- cf. Lev. 23:14 (First Fruits)
- cf. Lev. 23:21 (Pentecost)
- cf. Lev. 23:31 (Day of Atonement); Lev. 16:29-31
- cf. Lev. 23:31 (Tabernacles)
- Statute forever – Lev. 16:29-31 (atonement Sabbath)
- Her (Israel’s) Sabbaths – Lam. 1:7
- Feasts of the Lord – Lev. 23:1-3ff [Sabbath, Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Weeks (Pentecost), Trumpets, Day of Atonement, Tabernacles] 2 Chr. 8:12-13 – Solomon observed all the feasts
Sabbath for the Land – Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:1-7, 18-22; 26:28-35, 43; 2 Chr. 36:16-21; Ex. 23:9-11; Neh. 10:31; Lev. 25:2; Jer. 34:8-17 (c.f. Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:9
- Hag. 2:15-19 – “the land shall keep a Sabbath unto the Lord;”
- Lev. 25:2-7; 18-22 “a Sabbath of rest unto the land, a Sabbath for the Lord”
- Deut. 15:9; 31:10-13 “year of release”
- Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:12; Jer. 34:14 – bond-servants set free
- Deut. 15:1-6, 12-18; 19-20; Neh. 10:31 – creditors release debtors
- Lev. 26:34, 35 (32-41); Jer. 34:12-22 – punishment
- Possibly observed: 2 Ki. 18:32; 19:29; Jer. 34:8-17; Hag. 2:15-19
- Jubilee “seven sabbaths of years” – Num. 36:4; Lev. 25:8-55; 27:17-24; Jer. 32:6-15 “right of redemption” Isa. 61:1-3
- Sabbath and the New Moon – 2 Ki. 4:23; Isa. 66:23; Ezek. 46:1; Hos. 2:11; Amos 8:5
- Feast, New Moon and Sabbath – Ezek. 45:17; I Chr. 23:31; 2 Chr. 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; Neh. 10:33
- Sabbatic Year and Jubilee – Isa. 37:30; 2 Ki. 19:29
- First mention in wilderness – Ex. 16:5,25,26,27; cf. Ex. 16:28 “refusing to keep the commandments and laws”
- When given the law at Sinai – Ex. 20:8-10; Deut. 5:12-15; Neh. 9:13-14
- Creation association – Ex. 20:11; 31:17 (Gen. 2:2-3; Heb. 4:3-4)
- Release from captivity – Deut. 5:15
- Refreshment – Ex. 23:12; 31:15; 34:21; Lev. 16:31
- Sign for Israel/To know the Lord – Ex. 31:13; 31:17; Ezek. 20:12; 20:20
- A holy day – Ex. 35:2
- Basis for other feasts – Ex. 34:21-22; Lev. 23:2-3, 11, 15-16, 24, 32, 39
- To offer sacrifices – Lev. 23:37-38; Num. 28:9-10; cf. Heb. 9:9-10 “gifts and sacrifices” “food and drinks” “various washings” “carnal ordinances”
- To recall the Egyptian captivity – Deut. 5:15; Lev. 26:2, 13
- As a gift from God – Ex. 16:29 “the Lord has given you the Sabbath”
- As a gift to God – Lev. 23:37-38
- As a perpetual covenant – Ex. 31:16; Lev. 24:1-8 (showbread)
- As a statute forever – Lev. 16:29-31 (atonement Sabbath); Isa. 66:23 “worship from one Sabbath to another” through eternity
- Prophetic worship – Ezek. 45:17; 46:1, 4, 12
- To do good (as well as on any other day) – Matt. 12:12; Isa. 1:(13),17
- To read and study the Scriptures – Mk. 1:21; 6:2; Lk. 4:16; 4:31; 6:6; 13:10; Acts 13:14, 27, 42, 44; 17:2; 18:4
- Prayer – Acts 16:13
- Shadow of the believer’s salvation rest – Heb. 4:4
Starts the night before –
- Lev. 23:32 (atonement Sabbath) ” from evening unto evening, shall you celebrate your Sabbath”
- Neh. 13:19 “began to be dark before the Sabbath” (and needed to shut the gates)
- Mk. 15:42 “the evening was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the Sabbath (prosabbaton)”
- Lk. 23:54 “that day was the preparation, and the Sabbath drew on” cf. Matt. 28:1 “in the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn”
Cook the day before –
- Ex. 16:29 “cook what you need the day before”
- Ex. 35:3 “kindle no fire”
- cf. Ex. 12:16 “no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you.” (Passover Sabbaths)
- cf. Jer. 17:27 “I will kindle a fire in its gates” for Sabbath breaking
- cf. Ezek. 23:37-38 children passed through the fire on the Sabbath
- cf. Matt. 27:62 “the next day, that followed the day of the preparation”
- cf. Mk. 15:42 “when the evening was come… the day before the Sabbath”
- Lk. 23:54 post-crucifixion “day of preparation… Sabbath drew on”
- Jn. 19:31 “because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath day”
Abide at home –
- Ex. 16:29 “abide ye every man in his place”
- Lev. 23:31 (atonement Sabbath) observed “forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings”
- Lev. 23:3 “Sabbath of the Lord in all your dwellings”
- 2 Ki. 4:22-23 Shunamite woman usually visited Elisha on a Sabbath or new moon
- Jer. 17:22 “Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day”
- Matt. 24:20 “pray that your flight be not… on the Sabbath days”
- Lk. 23:55-56 “and they returned (to the sepulchers)…and rested the Sabbath day”
- Acts 1:12 “Sabbath day’s journey” (2,000 paces)
- cf. Acts 16:13 “on the Sabbath we went out the city (Philippi) by a river”
Rest prescribed –
- Ex. 23:12 six day to work, “the seventh is a day of rest”
- Ex. 31:15 six days to work, “the seventh is the Sabbath of rest”
- Ex. 34:21 six days to work, “the seventh is for rest during earing time and harvest”
- Ex. 35:2 six days to work, “the seventh is for rest…”
- cf. Lev. 23:32 “shall be to you a Sabbath of rest” (Atonement Sabbath)
- Lk. 23:56 “and rested the Sabbath day, according to the commandment”
Remember, Keep, Observe or Hallow –
- Ex. 16:28 “How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?”
- Ex. 20:8 “remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy”
- Ex. 31:13 “Verily, my Sabbaths ye shall keep; for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations…”
- Ex. 31:16 “the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath…”
- Ex. 31:16 “…to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations for a perpetual covenant”
- Lev. 19:3 “fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my Sabbaths”
- Lev. 19:30 “Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary”
- cf. Lev. 23:32 “celebrate your Sabbath” (Atonement Sabbath)
- Lev. 26:2 “Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary”
- Deut. 5:12 “Keep the Sabbath day to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God”
- Deut. 5:15 “the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath day”
- Neh. 13:22 “come and keep the gates, to sanctify the Sabbath day”
- cf. Neh. 13:17 “profane the Sabbath”
- cf. Isa. 1:13 “Sabbaths of backsliding Israel an abomination to the Lord”
- Isa. 56:2 “keep my Sabbaths”
- Isa. 56:4 “keep my Sabbaths”
- Isa. 56:6 “keep my Sabbaths”
- Isa. 58:13 “call it a delight and honor the Lord”
- Jer. 17:22, 24 “but hallow the Sabbath day”
- cf. Ezek. 20:13; 22:8; 23:38 Israel profaned or polluted “my Sabbaths”
- Ezek. 20:20 “hallow my Sabbaths”
- Ezek. 44:24 future priests to “hallow my Sabbaths”
- Acts 15:21 “Moses is read in the synagogues”
Work proscribed –
- Ex. 16:27 Israelites wrongly gathered manna
- Ex. 20:10 children, servants, livestock “shall not do any work”
- Ex. 23:12 the ox, ass, son of servant or stranger “shall rest”
- Ex. 31:14 “the soul who works shall be cut off”
- Ex. 31:15 inferred proscription from work
- Ex. 35:3 “kindle no fire”
- Lev. 16:29 “and do no work at all” (Atonement Sabbath)
- Lev. 23:3 “you shall do no work therein”
- cf. Lev. 23:24 “you shall do no servile work” (Trumpets Sabbath)
- cf. Lev. 23:31 “you shall do no manner of work” (atonement Sabbath)
- Num. 15:32 man wrongly gathered sticks
- Neh. 13:15 loading animals, bringing in heaps of grain, wine treading, sold provisions
- Neh. 13:16 men of Tyre enticed Jews to participate in commerce
- Neh. 13:22 “carried burdens”
- cf. Neh. 13:19 Nehemiah ordered his servants to guard the gates on the Sabbath to prevent the entrance of merchants into Jerusalem
- Isa. 58:13 prohibits “doing your own pleasure” “turning away foot” “speaking your own words” “doing you own ways”
- Jer. 17:21 “bear no burden… nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem”
- Jer. 17:22 don’t “carry… a burden out of your houses… neither do any work”
- Jn. 10:10 “it is not lawful for you to carry thy bed” (though told by Jesus to do so)
- cf. Mk. 16:1 “when the Sabbath was past” (Mary/Mary/Salome) went to anoint the body of Jesus
Conduct no business
- Neh. 10:31 after restoration of Sabbath, Jews were encouraged not to buy items brought by non-Jews to the city for sale
- Neh. 13:15-22 Israelites worked on the Sabbath
- Neh. 13:16 brought wares and sold on the Sabbath
- Neh. 13:17 “What evil thing is this that you do, and profane the Sabbath day?”
- Neh. 13:19 Ordered gate shut to restrict trade
- Jer. 17:21, 24, 27 “bear no burden… nor bring it in by the gates”
- Jer. 17:22 “Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day”
- Amos 8:5 God exposes the impatience of Israel to bypass the Sabbath so they may sell to earn money through deceit
Priestly duties –
- Lev. 24:1-8 priest prepares lampstands and arranges showbread “every Sabbath continually” “taken from the children of Israel by an everlasting covenant”
- cf. Ex. 25:23-30 Directions for showbread table
- Num. 28:9-10 two lambs sacrificed every Sabbath
- I Chr. 9:32 sons of the Kohathites were over the showbread, to prepare it every Sabbath
- 1 Sam 21:6 David and showbread
- Neh. 13:22 priests told to cleanse themselves by Nehemiah and to guard the gates
- cf. Ezek. 46:1 east gate to be opened on the Sabbath in the future (also on a New Moon)
- Jn. 7:22-24 “on the Sabbath day you circumcise a man”
Death Penalty and Judgments –
- Ex. 16:27-28 “How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws?” (for gathering manna on the Sabbath)
- Ex. 31:14 “anyone who defiles it shall surely be put to death”
- Ex. 31:14 “the soul who works shall be cut off”
- Ex. 35:2 “whosoever works shall be put to death”
- Lev. 26:33-35 Dispersion for disobedience of the law resulting in the land enjoying its forgotten sabbatic years
- cf. Num. 9:13 death penalty for not observing the Passover
- Num. 15:32-36 incident of man who gathered sticks and was put to death “did not know what to do”
- Neh. 13:15 “I testified against them in the day in which they sold provisions”
- Neh. 13:17 “I contended with the nobles… ‘what evil thing is this that you do and profane the Sabbath'”
- Neh. 13:18 Nehemiah expected greater judgment on Israel for profaning the Sabbath
- Neh. 13:21 “Then I testified against them”
- Isa. 1:13-14 God despises the festival worship of Israel “weary of bearing them”
- Jer. 17:27 “then will I kindle a fire in its gates” for Sabbath breaking
- Lam. 2:6 God caused Israel to forget Sabbaths by destroying the temple
- Ezek. 20:12-13 God pours out fury because Israel “polluted my Sabbaths”
- Hos. 2:11 God caused the Sabbaths to cease in judgment of forgetting Him
- cf. Jer. 34:12-22 Judgment for breaking Land Sabbath
- cf. Jer. 34:17 “I proclaim a liberty for you… to the sword”
- cf. Neh. 13:18 Judgment for breaking the Sabbath
Jesus taught on the Sabbath
- Mk. 1:21 “straightway on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught” (in Capernaum)
- Mk. 6:2 “when the Sabbath day was come, he (Jesus) began to teach in the synagogue”
- Lk. 4:16 “as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day… to read”
- Lk. 4:31 in Capernaum “taught them on the Sabbath days”
- Lk. 6:6 “on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught”
- Lk. 13:10 “he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath”
Jesus healed on the Sabbath
- Healed a man with a paralyzed hand – Matt. 12:9-14; Mk. 3:1-6; Lk. 6:6-11
- Healed a man of an unclean spirit – Mk. 1:21-28
- Healed a few sick folk. – Mk. 6:1-5 (Lk. 4:16-30 – no mention of healing)
- Healed an infirmed woman – Lk. 13:10-17
- Healed a certain man with dropsy – Lk. 14:1-6
- Healed a man at the pool of Bethesda – Jn. 5:1-16
- Healed a man born blind – Jn. 9:14-16
Jesus accused of breaking the Sabbath
- Disciples plucked ears of corn – Matt. 12:1-8; Mk. 2:23-28; Lk. 6:1-5
- Healed a man with a paralyzed hand – Matt. 12:9-14; Mk. 3:1-6; Lk.6:6-11
- Healed an infirmed woman – Lk. 13:10-17
- Healed the man at the pool of Bethesda – Jn. 5:1-16
- Healed in general – Jn. 7:21-24
- Jn. 19:31 “for that Sabbath day was a high day” (atonement Sabbath)
- Lk. 18:12 “I fast twice in the week” (hypocrite’s prayer)
- Acts 1:2 “Sabbath day’s journey” (Mt. Olivet to Jerusalem)
- Acts 13:14, 27, 42, 44 Jews and Gentiles hear apostles preach on the Sabbath in Antioch
- Acts 15:21 “Moses is read in every synagogue every Sabbath”
- Acts 16:13 “on the Sabbath we went out of the city (Philippi) by a riverside”
- Acts 17:2 Paul reasoned from the Scriptures for three Sabbaths at Thessalonica
- Acts 18:4 Paul reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath at Corinth
- 2 Cor. 8:15 “As it is written, He that had gathered much had nothing over; and he that had gathered little had no lack” (Ex. 16:18)
- cf. Rom. 14:5-6 “one man esteems one day above another…”
- cf. Gal. 4:10 “you observe days and months and seasons and years”
- Col. 2:16 “Let no man judge you in respect of a holy day, new moon or of the Sabbath days”
- cf. Heb. 4:4 “the seventh day” God did rest from all his works
- Heb. 4:9 “There remains, therefore, a (Sabbath) rest to the people of God”
SUNDAY, THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK
Sabbaton or Sabbata translated ‘week’
- Matt. 28:1 “as it began to dawn toward the first (day) of the week”
- Mk. 16:2 “in the morning the first (day) of the week”
- Mk. 16:9 “risen early the first (day) of the week”
- Lk. 24:1 “upon the first (day) of the week”
- Jn. 20:1 “the first (day) of the week”
- Jn. 20:19 “the first (day) of the week”
- Acts 20:7 “upon the first (day) of the week, when the disciples came together”
- I Cor. 16:2 “upon the first (day) of the week let every one of you lay by him”
- cf. Lk. 18:12 “I fast twice in the week (hypocrite’s prayer)
Kuriakos [Gk. 2960] 2 occurences “Lord’s”
- Rev. 1:10 “I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice”
- 1 Cor. 11:20 – Lord’s Supper
Pentekoste [Gk. 4005] 3 occurences “Pentecost”
- Acts 2:1; 20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8
TYPOLOGY of rest
Tupos [N.T. 5179] 15 occurrences
- 2 ‘print’ – Jn. 20:25 (2)
- 2 ‘figure’ – Acts 7:43; Ro 5:14 – Adam a figure of Christ
- 1 ‘fashion’ – Acts 7:44
- 1 ‘manner’ – Acts 23:25
- 1 ‘form’ – Rom. 6:17
- 6 ‘example’ – 1 Cor. 10:6; Phil. 3:17; 1 Th. 1:7; 2 Th. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12; 1 Pet. 5:3
- 2 ‘pattern’ – Titus 2:7; Heb. 8:5 – Temple built according to the pattern, cf. Ex. 25:40
Antitupos [N.T. 499] 2 occurrences
- ‘figure’ – Heb. 9:24 “figures of the true”; 1 Pet. 3:21
Creation Rest, a type of the divine work necessary to provide redemptive rest
- Gen. 2:2-3 – God “rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done”
- Ex. 20:11 – in six days created the heavens and earth, and on the seventh day He rested
- Heb. 4:4-6 – “it remains that some must enter it” Author interprets OT rest typologically as redemptive rest/heaven
Noah, tenth generation of man, a type of an anticipated one who provides rest
- Gen. 5:29 Noah to give rest to mankind; in relation to curse of Adam
- Gen. 8:4 the ark rests on Mount Ararat
- Gen 8:21 Noah’s sacrifice was a smell of “rest” to God
- Gen. 9:1 God repeated mandate given to Adam (Noah is a 2nd Adam, that is, a prototype for Christ, who is identified as the second Adam)
- Lk 3:36 Noah is in lineage of Christ who is the provider of rest
- 1 Pet 3:20 Ark is a type of salvation, identifying Noah’s work as typologically redemptive
Canaan, son of Ham, a type of a cursed one who provides a place of rest
- Gen. 9:25 – cursed grandson of Noah (Gal. 3:3 Christ became a curse for us)
- Gen. 9:25 – “a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers” (Mk. 9:35; 10:45; Acts 3:13; 3:26; 4:30 Christ is a servant like no other)
- Gen. 10:15-19 – prodigious family growth who inherits a favorable land
- Gen. 9:25 – first use of ‘servant’ in OT; cf. Zech. 3:8 last use of ‘servant’ in OT is Christ
Abraham, twenty-first (3×7) generation of man, a type of one who trusts God awaiting ultimate rest; already and not yet paradigm
- Gen. 12:1 – “to a land that I will show you”
- Gen. 12:5-7 – land, blessing, altar; iteration of Adam planted in the garden
- Gen. 12:10 – Hope of Canaan postponed; a type of waiting for heaven; already—not yet
- Gen. 12:10 – Abraham in Egypt awaiting Canaan
- Gen. 49:29 – Jacob in Egypt awaiting Canaan but dies there, but bones brought to Canaan
- Gen 50:24-26 – Joseph in Egypt asks to be buried in Canaan; promises that Tribes will return to Canaan
- 1 Thess. 4:13-18 – “God will bring with Him those who sleep in Jesus”
- Heb. 11:8-10 – to Abraham, the land of promise was a foreign country
- Heb. 11:9 – only God could provide the ultimate place of rest
- Heb. 11:13-16 – the patriarchs did not receive the promise but desired a heavenly country
Moses, an iteration of Noah, a type of an obedient one who provides rest
- Ex. 33:12-17; 39:42-43 – Pleased and obeyed God cp. Gen. 6:8, 22
- Ex 2:1-10 – Moses placed in Basket (Heb. tebah=ark ) in the water cp. Gen. 7:7
- Ex. 3:8-10 – Moses to lead Israel to the land of rest cp. Gen. 8:17
- Ex. 33:14; Deut. 3:23-28; 32:48-52; 34:4; Negatively, final lapse in obedience disqualified from rest cp. Gen. 9:21
Old Covenant with ritual rest, a type of the New Covenant with redemptive rest
- Ex. 20:1-17; 24:7-8; 31:12-18; 34:27-29; Lev. 24:5; Jer. 31:31-37; Isa. 56:1-2; 56:6-7; 58:13-14; 66:22-23
- Ex. 31:18, 32:15-16 – During Moses’ second advent up Mount Sinai, he received the two tables of the covenant, written on both sides. Ex. 34:1, 28 – Moses broke the first set and God replaced it with a second set. Deuteronomy means second law. The Ten Commandments are twice recorded in Scripture. Deut. 5-26 is Moses’ second discourse to second generation is a retelling of the law. Deut. 17:18 is namesake of the book, commanding the king to make a copy of the law. Deut. 27 puts Israel before the Jordan River a second time, where this second generation must rehearse the law at the foot of two mountains. Deut. 27:2-8 Israel plastered stone monuments and copied the law upon them.
- 2 Cor. 3:2-3, 6-18 – Paul considered the events typic of New Covenant, Ex. 34:29-30; Ezek. 11:9; Ps. 40:6-8; Col. 2:14; Heb. 10:9
- Heb. 9:3, 7, 15 – Jesus, as the High Priest beyond the second veil, mediated the new covenant to ensure receipt of eternal inheritance
- Heb. 8:7; 10:9 – first-second pattern of typology; cf. Gen. 25:23; Rom. 9:10-13; 1 Cor. 15:45-49
The Tabernacle, a type of rest emphasizing the presence of God and fellowship with Him
- Ex. 25:9; 26:30 – Pattern shown to Moses
- Ex. 29:43-46 – Presence of God, as in the Garden
- Ex. 40:35-38; Num. 1:50-51; 10:17 – Tabernacle and Ark moveable places of peace, transitory through sea of humanity awaiting a place of permanent rest and security
- Ex. 40:2 – tabernacle erected first day of first month, cp. Gen 8:13
- John 1:14; Rev. 21:3 – Jesus is the tabernacle; last use; paradise described
Sabbath, the ultimate type of redemptive rest. Exquisitely detailed by seven pairs of laws, the Sabbath looks to pre-fall Eden and the Exodus for symbolic ideas to design a comprehensive type of complete redemptive rest.
- When. Ex. 16:4-31 Israel’s religious week established historically by the giving of the Manna; Gen. 2:1-3; 4:15 The number seven determined by God as a symbol of His perfect work; Ex. 31:16; Lev. 23:32; Neh. 13:19; pictures plight of and rescue of man from sin Ex. 7:1-5; 22-23; 8:15, 32; 10:27-11:1; 11:4-5; 12:30-31, 41, 51; 13:3-5; Deut. 16:6; Ps. 39:5-6; Isa. 9:2 as moving from evening, to darkest midnight, to daybreak of salvation, into an unending fellowship with God.
- Where. Ex. 16:29; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 12:10-11; Jer. 17:22 through the concept of Hebrew place-worship, this pictures the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in a believer’s heart. 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 3:17; Jn. 15:4; 2 Jn. 9; Rev 3:12; 14:1. Yet it also looks to Eden as a prototype of the eternal habitation of God with man Gen. 2:8-10; 3:8; Isa. 66:1; Matt 5:35; Acts 7:49; Rev. 21:3. Lastly, separation of peoples, whether in homes, cities, and country, typifies the separation of the godly from the ungodly Deut. 17:5; 2 Chr. 14:6-7; 36:15-21; Neh. 13:19-22; Jer. 17:24, 27; Jn. 10:9, 28-29; Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 3:16; Phil. 3:17-19; 4:7
- Why. The problem of sin and the divine solution is symbolized via the two rationales for Sabbath observance. Ex. 20:11, 31:17, the creation week ending with sinless mankind is the reason the Sabbath is hallowed, Gen. 2:2-3; Heb. 4:3-4, and Deut. 5:15, like Passover, the Sabbath is rooted in deliverance from Egypt, a type of salvation from the bondage of sin.
- How. Ex. 16:29; 20:9-10; 23:12; 35:2-3; Num. 15:32; Jer. 17:21-22; Neh. 13:15-16, 19 The twin commands to rest and avoid work typify the gospel call to trust in God, rather than in works, to become saved; Ex. 14:12-13; Deut. 5:15; Ps. 38:4; 104:29-30; Eccl 3:19; Joel 1:18-20; Isa. 9:4; 11:5-10; 65:17-25; Hos. 2:18; Jn. 1:13 Rom. 6:15-22; 8:19-22; 1 Cor. 6:9-11; Heb. 4:3; and that redemption applies not only to man, but to the whole realm of creation.
- How. Ex. 35:2-3; Deut. 32:21-22; Ps. 50:3; Isa. 47:14; 66:16; Jer. 4:4, 15:14; 17:27; Amos 5:6; Rom 5:9; 1 Thess. 1:10 with a view to Eden, fire signifies judgment Gen. Ex. 12:8-10; Lev. 10:6; 1 Ki. 18; thus, no kindling of fires typifies redemption as freedom from God’s judgment Isa. 43:2; Heb. 10:18; and Ex. 16:23; Josh. 5:11; Mark 15:42; prefigured in the giving of Manna before the Sabbath, preparation beforehand typifies the Godward attitude and faith to receive what is promised; Ex. 12:3-6; Deut. 16:16-17; Lev. 23:42; Lk. 12:47; Acts 17:30-31; Heb. 4:7; 13:10; Rev. 3:20, 22; and the week of preparation symbolizes the work of God in their life bringing them to a place of rest; Ps. 31:19; Matt. 25:34; Jn. 14:1-3; Rom. 9:23; 1 Cor. 2: 9-10; 2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 2:10; Heb. 11:3; Rev. 21:1
- Duties. Priestly service of two yearling lambs, a grain offering and drink offering signify that redemptive work is necessary to secure rest, that sin must be addressed. Num. 28:9-10; Ex. 29:42-46; 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 9:22; Showbread prefigures the oneness of Christ and the redeemed before the presence of God enjoying the state of rest; Ex. 25:30; Lev. 24:5-9; 1 Chr. 9:32; 23:29; 2 Chr. 13:10; Neh. 10:33; Jn. 6:35; Gal. 3:26-29; Heb. 9:2, 9
- Legal. Ex. 16:27-29; Ex. 31:14-15; Num. 15:32-36; Lev. 26:14-15, 33-35; Neh. 13:17; Jer. 17:21-22, 27; 34:13-17; Isa. 1:13-14; 24:5; Ezek. 20:12-13; 22:8; 23:38-39; 44:7 The punishment for Sabbath-breaking speaks of the spiritual end of those who disregard the call to salvation, Phil. 2:12; Heb. 3:12; 4:1; 10:31
Eighth-day calendar laws, a type of new beginning, beyond the seventh day of redemption
- Gen. 15:6; 17:10-14; Lev. 12:3; Deut. 30:5-6; Jer. 4:4; Jn. 7:21-24; Rom. 4:11; Gal. 3:14-16 – Circumcision of Abraham typological of superiority of promise, an eighth day ceremony that supersedes the seventh day Sabbath
- Lev. 23 – List of seven annual feasts preceded by Sabbath, the eighth member
- Lev. 23:29 – eighth day Sabbath of Feast of Tabernacles completes the annual calendar
- Lev. 14:7-10 – cleansing of leper involves eighth day of revitalization
- Gen. 49:3; Ex. 13:2, 14-15; 22:30; 34:19-20; Lev. 22:27; Num. 3:13; 18:15; Ps. 89:27; Zech. 12:10; Matt. 1:25; Lk. 2:22-23; Jn. 19:26-27; Rom. 8:28; Col. 1:8; Heb. 12:23; Firstborn laws with eighth day rituals prefigure the qualifications, birth order, divinity, and privileges of Christ, and our brotherhood with Him
- Lev. 23:6-11; Num. 15:20 – Feast of First Fruits, Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) and Jubilee are eighth-day celebrations, following the passage of seven days, seven weeks, and seven Sabbath years, respectively. NT interpretations associate Christ, the Holy Spirit, and the church with each of these. Lk. 4:16-21; Rom. 8:23; 11:16; 1 Cor. 15:20; Jas. 1:18; Rev. 14:4
- 1 Sam. 12-14; Ps. 89:27; Isa. 9:6-7; Rom:4:5-8; Rev. 3:7; 5:5; 22:16 – David, an eighth son, is called first-born as a type of Christ and gospel proclaimer
- Deut. 1:38; 3:28; 31:1, 3, 7, 14, 23; Josh. 1:13; 4:14; 23:1; 8:30-35; 11:15, 18-23; 14:15; 19:49; 21:43-45; 22:4; 23:1-2, 14-16; Jdg. 2:11-23 – God promises that Joshua, like Moses, will cause Israel to inherit the land, the land of rest; Joshua dies; Israel warned
- Heb. 4:8 – Joshua did not give Israel rest
Land of Canaan, a type of a place of rest
- Ex. 3:7-8 – God’s plan to take Israel from Egypt to Canaan
- Deut. 6:3 – Canaan likened to mandate given to Adam
- Deut. 9:6 – Canaan a gift to the unrighteous
- Deut. 12:9-10; 25:19 – Lord gives Canaan as rest
- Deut. 28:65 – Judgment for disobedience “you shall find no rest”
- Josh. 1:13, 15 – Lord giving Canaan as a rest
- Josh. 14:15 – Canaan rest after initial conquest
- Josh. 21:43-45; 22:4; 23:1 – Canaan rest as fulfilled promise
- Ps. 95:11 – Reviews wilderness delay entering rest of Canaan
- Mic. 2:10 – Dispossession of Canaan as judgment
- Heb. 3:18 – Canaan rest denied for want of Abrahamic faith
- Heb. 4:8 – Canaan rest never realized in spite of occupation
Boaz, tenth generation from Abraham, a type of kinsman redeemer who provides rest
- Ruth 1:1-2, 9 – Elimelech and sons die in Moab; wife Naomi and daughter-in-law Ruth return to Canaan (Judah) to find rest and the restoration of land, name, inheritance
- Ruth 2:1 – Boaz, the seventh character in the book, is a relative of Elimelech and of “great wealth”
- Ruth 3:18 – Ruth must “sit still” in order to let Boaz do the work of redemption
- Ruth 4:6 – first relative unwilling to risk inheritance for Naomi
- Ruth 4:10 – Boaz “perpetuates the name of the dead”
- Ruth 4:21-22 – Boaz is great-grandfather to David
- Lev. 25:23-25 – kinsman redeemer law
- Deut. 7:8; 2 Sam. 7:23 – the Lord is the true redeemer of the land
- Eph. 1:11 – in Jesus, we have obtained an inheritance
- Heb. 2:11 – Jesus is not ashamed to call us His brethren, whom He redeemed from death
Judges and Kings of Israel, types of the providers of rest
- Jdg. 3:11 – Caleb’s nephew and the first Judge of Israel, Othniel (meaning “lion of God” a powerful one), the only Judge from the family of Judah, ended eight years of servitude and provided 40 years of rest. Like Jesus, he was filled with the Spirit, a deliverer and judge of Israel, a provider of rest and prosperity for the people under his rule, and rewarded with a bride for his victory.
- Jdg. 3:30 – Ehud (meaning “united”), the second Judge of Israel, ended eighteen years of servitude to King Eglon and provided eighty years of rest, a two-fold escalation. Like Jesus, he was a deliverer of Israel because he single-handedly delivered the quietus to the enemy with a double-edged sword in an unexpected way, and then escaped the guarded chambers to lead his army in vanquishing 10,000 capable soldiers, letting not one of them to escape—a complete victory leading to rest.
- Jdg. 5:31 – Barak, the fourth Judge of Israel, with Deborah and Jael, delivered Israel from twenty years of oppression under King Jabin and his commander Sisera, and gave them forty years of rest. Jael, put Sisera to rest while he slept. Jdg. 4:15; 5:4; 1 Sam. 12:11; Heb. 11:32 Barak receives not all the glory, but is later praised, though it was the Lord who brought the victory and ensuing rest.
- 1 Sam. 8-10 – Saul, as first king, was rejected in favor of David, an eighth son; the first rejected to establish the second
- 2 Sam. 7:1 – Rest under King David; positively, one after God’s heart; negatively, not a murderer
- 1 Ki. 5:4; 8: 56; 1 Chr. 22:9 – Rest under King Solomon
- 2 Chr. 14:6; 15:15 – Rest under King Asa
- 2 Chr. 20:30 – Rest under King Jehosaphat
- Heb. 10:7 – Jesus, the everlasting King, comes to do God’s will
- 1 Pet. 2:23 – Unlike any other king, Christ did not revile in return
- Matt. 25:31ff; Jn. 5:22-30; 8:16; 9:39; Rom 14:10; 2 Cor. 5:10; Heb. 10:29-30; Jude 14-15 – The Lord Jesus is the ultimate judge
- Matt. 2:2; 21:4-5; 25:34; 27:11; Mk. 15:2; Lk. 19:38; 23:3; Jn. 1:49; 12:13-15; Jn. 18:37; Acts 17:7; 1 Tim. 1:17; 6:15; Heb 7:1ff [Jesus as antitype to King Melchizedek]; Rev. 15:3; 17:14; 19:16 – The Lord Jesus is the King of kings
The Temple, like the tabernacle, it is a type of rest by virtue of the enduring presence of God in the midst of His people during a period of rest. Figuratively, it is likened to a house, which is where Sabbath-keeping took place; and a sanctuary—or holy place—like Eden, where Adam and Eve enjoyed rest. Christ manifested all that the Temple meant in His person, therefore, He could claim to offer rest Himself without the need of a Temple. Christ’s prediction of the temple’s destruction shows that it could never provide rest and Paul’s teaching that temple laws no longer bound Jews shows the fulfillment of temple foreshadowings. David envisioned a permanent single location of rest, but God envisioned a more glorious rest only shadowed in David’s plan.
- 1 Chr. 29:1; 2 Chr. 7:12; 23:5, 36:17; 12; Ps: 78:68-69; 132:13-18; Isa. 2:2, 3; 56:7; 60:7; 64:11; Jn. 2:16; Matt. 21:13 – called a house of God, or of prayer; a sanctuary; a dwelling place or resting place
- 2 Sam. 7; 1 Chr. 18:8; 22:2ff; 28:2ff; 1 Ki. 5:3; 7:51 – David plans the temple
- 2 Sam. 7:12; 1 Ki. 5:1ff; 6:1-38; 7:13-21; 8:17-20; 24:18-25; 2 Chr. 3:1-14ff – Solomon constructs the temple; 1 Ki. 7:15-22; 8:10-21
- 2 Chr. 3:15-17; Ps. 79:1 – the twin pillars, Jachin and Boaz, meaning “He shall establish” and “In it is strength” were not enough to protect the holy place from defilement
- 1 Ki. 9:1-9; 2 Chr. 7:12-22 – A man-made temple could never be established forever and could not be strong enough to withstand the onslaught of enemies or the judgment of God
- 2 Ki. 11:1ff – Joash hidden in the temple for six years during Athaliah’s reign, and began his reign at age seven; David’s spears and shields kept in the temple used to protect the young King Joash at his ascension to the throne
- 2 Ki. 18:14-16 – Hezekiah takes gold from the temple to pay Sennacherib; 2 Ki. 21:3-7 – Manasseh desecrated the temple; Ezek. 8:7-18 wickedness in the temple after the death of Josiah; 2 Chr. 36:5-8; 2 Ki. 23:34-24:7 – Nebuchadnezzar pillages temple and enslaves Jehoiakim; 2 Ki. 25:1ff – final destruction of temple by Nebuchadnezzar during Zedekiah’s reign.
- Ezek. 40-43 – Hence, Ezekial’s prophecy of a restored Temple describes one constructed by God that cannot be desecrated or destroyed, Ezek 43:7, that could not be desecrated by Gentiles, Ps. 118:22; Ezek. 11:19; 36:26; 37:26ff; Isa. 28:16; 56:7-8; Jn. 4:21
- 2 Chr. 36:23; Ezr. 1:1-4ff; Neh. 12:44 – orders to rebuild the temple; God directed
- Matt. 21:12-13; Mk. 11:15-17; Jn. 2:13-17; 18-21 – Jesus shows godly concern for holiness of the temple area; Christ is a manifestation of the temple, to be destroyed and raised up again more gloriously (1st temple destruction followed by Ezekial’s eternal temple vision)
- Matt. 12:6; 23:38; Mk. 13:2; 14:58; Jn. 2:19-21; 4:20-24 – Jesus predicts the destruction of the temple
- 1 Cor. 3:15-17; 6:19; 2 Cor. 6:14-18; Gal. 4:26; Eph. 2:11-22; 2 Thes. 2:4; 1 Pet. 2:5; Rev. 3:12 – The unified body of believers is identified as a temple of God, corporately and individually, by virtue of their unity in Christ
- Acts 21:26-36; Eph. 2:14; – Temple laws no longer applicable to Christians
- Rev. 7:5; 11:1-2; 19; 21:22-23 – Heaven is a temple; God encompasses all temple ideals
Purim, a type of rest
- Esth. 9:16-32 – Origin of Feast of Purim as a rest from enemies; Dan. 9:26-27; Rom. 11:25-26; 2 Thes. 2:8 – this final type perhaps foreshadowing the rest worldly Jews may enjoy at Christ’s return and His dealing with the man of sin and world enemies who hate Israel
NOTE: Before you proceed further, you may consider outlining every possible verse yourself, reading them all in context several times, and then organizing them in a systematic way. This way, you will be doing original research. I assembled this outline using Young’s Analytical Concordance of the Bible and New Englishman’s Greek Concordance which are based on the KJV. Of course, if you find an error in detail, please let me know. And sorry for the delay in presenting this.
Evaluating the Strength of Arguments in the Sabbath/Lord’s Day Controversy, Part 2b: What are the Motives?
Bruce Ray (CS-Puritan) asks an interesting question of his readers: What two motives do many people have for opposing a day set apart for rest, worship, and celebration? His answer to this question is paired with the fact that there exists conflicting opinions about this matter.
“Those seeking profit and pleasure have often been impatient with the Lord’s command to rest, and have chafed under it. People who think the world exists for their own personal peace and affluence have never embraced God’s command to abstain from work and to rest as he did. The prophet Amos exposed the greed and dishonest business practices of merchants in his day, who only tolerated the Sabbath, but never enjoyed it. . . Many people see the Sabbath, or Lord’s Day, as an infringement of their personal liberty—a day that God has taken from them instead of a gift that he has given to them for rest, worship, and celebration.”
Ray surmises that the person is too busy with life “to give up one day in seven for God” and conflicts occur “when our will contradicts his (God’s).”
I do not know what kind of persons Ray is thinking of. It appears that those who seek a profit on the day that he believes should be given to rest, are the employer and employee who are working. If someone works on Sunday, is it always because they think the world exists for their pleasure and affluence? Does Ray allow exceptions for people to work or manage a business on Sunday, even though financial gain is obtained thereby? It is also difficult to know just what “pleasures” in life Ray has in mind that conflict with his concept of a 24-hour rest. His mention of Amos seems to implicate religious people who actually attend church, but has he uncovered multitudes of them who just can’t wait for church to be over so they can tend to their occupations and avocations?
Perhaps Ray is speaking of Christians within his own circle who have expressed disagreement about appropriate Sabbath activities, or who sit in church with eyes half shut, or those who don’t return for the evening service. Perhaps Ray is addressing those Christians who object to calling the Lord’s Day a “Christian Sabbath.” He does mention churches that offer abbreviated Saturday night services so church members can attend secular events that are scheduled on Sunday. And perhaps Ray is thinking of unbelievers who apportion no time for God and have no internal reason to attend church (but they probably won’t read his book either).
Regardless, this example of disparagement erects an “us versus them” mentality about Sunday/Sabbath behavior, and elevates those recommended behaviors as meritorious, obligatory, and/or conscionable. Those who comply with Ray’s concept of proper Sabbath-keeping apparently have the right attitude and motives, while others don’t. It does not appear that Ray has considered any other motives of those who “oppose” a day of rest.
Consider Paul’s motives when he confronted Peter about separating himself from Gentiles. Paul was interested in protecting the liberty of believers in Christ from bondage to Jewish cultural norms (Gal 2:4) and preserving the clarity and simplicity of the gospel (Gal 2:14). What some considered virtuous activities, i.e., circumcision or separation, Paul decried as anathema. Consider, too, Luther’s motives in posting his 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg. He eventually recognized that climbing “Pilate’s staircase” on his knees or selling indulgences to remit sins of those in purgatory was valueless. For Luther, protecting the conscience and liberty of believers was tantamount to protecting the message of the gospel.
“What, then, are we to think of the Sunday and like rites in the house of God? To this we answer that it is lawful for bishops or pastors to make ordinances that things be done orderly in the Church, not that thereby we should merit grace or make satisfaction for sins, or that consciences be bound to judge them necessary services, and to think that it is a sin to break them without offense to others.”
Unless someone explains to you what motivates them to take or not take an action, we can only suppose. And in supposing, we can cast someone’s motivation in either a positive or negative light (1 Cor 13:7), hopefully taking account of the external and internal factors involved. Understanding motivation is certainly a topic for Christians to comprehend. We would like to think that our motives are always pure, but unfortunately we can deceive even ourselves (Jer 17:9). We can do the wrong thing with good intentions, and we can do the right thing with bad intentions. The matter is further complicated by the emotions and feelings people experience that subliminally influence or reinforce behavior. Let God’s word be the discerner of our motives, and may His Spirit help us understand ourselves better (Heb 4:12).
My suspicion is that whether you attend an LD, CS, or SS church, there is someone there who would rather be somewhere else; and there’s someone not there who could have or should have been there. That’s understandable. In a church that prioritizes attendance and exerts more control over church members, the above ratio leans to the first of these two groups. And in a church that emphasizes Christian liberty, the ratio leans to the second of these two groups. However, the majority of church-goers are favorably motivated to attend church services each week to worship the Lord, to give attention to God’s word, and to fellowship with like-minded believers. But are the motives of CS believers different than the motives of SS believers, simply because they worship on different days of the week? Does a LD believer attend church with a different motivation than a CS believer, even though they differ on how they spend their afternoon? Not really. But they have differing intellectual beliefs about the proper day for worship, the order of worship and style, the significance of it in their life, and how that is expressed in terms of their activities on that day. Most church-goers believe they are approaching this topic biblically; that is, they believe they are following God’s will. So, perhaps this is the ultimate question: What is God’s will on this matter? Again, this must be determined primarily by a thorough study of Scripture, motivated to pursue truth with intellectual honesty and the assistance of the Holy Spirit, while acknowledging the subtle, yet powerful, influence of our feelings, fears, and frustrations.
And what about those who do not attend church? Are they remaining home because they can’t decide what day of the week they should worship on or what activities they may or may not engage in? What importance do we place on the opinions of those who remain home while we attend church services? Whether those absent from the pews are believers or unbelievers, this does not affect the answers to any of the previous list of questions (Part 2a). Therefore, this is primarily an issue that must be determined by a thorough exegesis of Scripture. We shouldn’t be second-guessing other’s motivations (Pro 18:13; Rom 14:4; Jas 4:11-12) when it is really a theological matter. Furthermore, I hope our motivation is to properly understand the relationship of the Sabbath and Lord’s Day and to order our thinking and behavior accordingly.
 Chantry, Celebrating the Sabbath, p. 4.
 Chantry, Celebrating the Sabbath, p. 4, 5.
 This is an interesting side topic—a confounder—in the Sabbath/Lord’s Day controversy. I do not hold to the CS position, but I agree that churches should keep their official congregational meetings on Sunday. Ray does discuss labor and recreation elsewhere in the book…
 Augsburg Confession, Article 28.